A lire/To read/Da leggere:
ARAB CIVILIZATION Introduction to the Arab World in www.alhewar.com Islamic Declaration of Rights in www.alhewar.com In www.wikipedia.org (Al Ghazali, Ibn Sina (Avincenne), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Taymiyyah …)
One will also want to read the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (copied by the Old Testament; translated in part in English as early as the 1830's, it was carefully hushed since then to preserve the dominant religious dogmas, swallowed whole by the masses); the Legend of Sargon (on which the figure of Moses was patterned); the Code of Hammurabi (copied with a characteristic sectarian and exclusivist aggravation by the Leviticus); the Book of Dead and Legend of Horus (which inspired the concpet of resuscitation in the Christian Gospels as well as in the Nordic Sagas and Legends and in the Koran, albeit leaving the nature of "soul" opened to discusion as the above-mentionned Islamic thinkers well knew ...) Likewise, Indian and Chinese early contributions.
Note also, at least as far as historical Mediterranean civilizations are concerned, the precedence of the Egyptian Heliopolis Temple - also acting as the depository of the Pharaohs' dynastic Archives, and as the most advanced astrological cum astronomical knowledge centre of Early Antiquity, eventually leading to Akhenaten's monotheism. This remained true at least until Pythagoras' Calabrian great reorganization, deeply in tune with the Magna Graecia preservation of Heraclitian initiatic cults and with the intimate convinction to be a land of 'ndranghetoi (it is my belief that everything must be taken off the mafia's clutches, including the historically important etymology of this word.) This precedence colored Augustine's City of God and, of course, the Arabic antecedents of the Calabrian Tommaso Campanella's City of the Sun, a monument to the modernization of political thought, in line with the earlier powerful secularizing contribution of the great Calabrian Abbot, Joachim of Flora. If idiosyncraisis were forgiven, notwithstanding the abject present neglect, one would quickly note that geography strategically placed Calabria in between both the East and West and the North and South of the Mediterranean. The confluence or, if you will the "concordia" (Baudelaire would say "correspondances") between civilizations is the great affair of this section of the site.
Islam, esprit républicain, socialisme et indépendance
Three choices for Islam : Status quo; regressive fundamentalism; Islamic Socialism. (This also includes a Note on the FED's Quantitative Easing and Islamic countries, Jan. 2011.)
AVANT-PROPOS -- FOREWORD:
Il n'est pas dans mes intentions de immiscer dans les affaires internes des pays : On notera la date de composition originale des deux premiers textes ici proposés, soit Islam, esprit républicain, socialisme et indépendance et Three choices for Islam.
Je ne revendique aucune compétence théologique. Ce n'est pas mon propos. Je suis spécialisé en Relations Internationales (Economie Politique Internationale.) Et, de ce point de vue-là, le monde arabe et musulman suit des lois universelles qui sont celles élucidées par le matérialisme historique, successeur, si on veut, de la sociologie historique d'Ibn Khaldun et de la Scienza nuova de Giambattista Vico : La plus grande erreur, d'un côté comme de l'autre, serait de s'acharner aveuglément à cloisonner l'espace culturel, spirituel, socio-économique et politique musulman dans des catégories qui seraient hermétiques aux autres peuples. C'est d'ailleurs-là le piège tendu par les obscurantistes exclusivistes de tous poils, particulièrement en Occident. Pour qui connaît un peu d'histoire, ces prétentions à présenter l'Autre comme un '' barbare '', un '' terroriste '', voire un "alien", sont sans le moindre fondement. Ce qui prime au contraire, aujourd'hui comme hier durant la Première et la Seconde Renaissance occidentales, c'est le dialogue entre les civilisations, l'unique élément qui puisse dissiper le bruit et la fureur artificiellement répandus. Il convient donc de réagir aux tombereaux inepties déversées en Occident. On sait quoi penser des Huntington, des Bernard Lewis, de trop d'écrivaillons médiatiques souvent à la solde de l'Otan ou des agences comme USAID ou encore des boîtes à Soros et Cie, toujours prêts à partir en chœur sur la même partition au moindre signal venu d'en-haut, mais aussi des épigones des soi-disant '' Cent portes '' occultistes et orientales à souhait du Le Monde diplomatique jouant un rôle aujourd'hui opposé à celui des éditions illustrées des Milles et une nuits répandues en Europe durant le XVIII et le XIX siècles. La décentralisation épistémologique (Piaget) et l'occultation volontaire ne sont pas compatibles. La réalité est la même partout, l'Orient (selon la cartographie de Mercator) ne demande pas une initiation ou une '' dispense '' particulière pour être compris, mais seulement un peu d'honnêteté critique. Les problèmes fondamentaux qui confrontent les peuples sont partout identiques : Ils ne diffèrent que par leur degré (par exemple, celui de l'exploitation interne et externe), non par leur nature.
Pour le reste, comme dans tout, il est toujours préférable de savoir de quoi l'on parle, en limitant son commentaire à ce que l'on connaît. Le travail fraternel et critique fait naturellement le reste. Mes propres lacunes sont ici évidentes, ne seraient que par ce qui est disponible en traductions et commentaires fiables. Par contre, je crois que les croisés contemporains veulent '' une fois encore '' nous séparer de la civilisation musulmane, non pas parce qu'elle nous est incompréhensible, mais parce que cette séparation est le premier pas essentiel dans leur tentative de nous retourner tous de force dans les voies de l'obscurantisme rabbinico-nietzschéen caractérisé par '' le contrôle des flux de communication '' et l'imposition anti-constitutionnelle par le biais du Marteau rabbinico-nietzschéen d'une soi-disant '' déférence envers l'Autorité ''. Il n'est d'Autorité que la raison exercée légalement par des consciences libres : Et jusqu'à preuve du contraire, la loi est la même pour tous. Trop de minables petits manipulateurs connus mais tolérés aspirent à s'auto-représenter comme des '' hussards de la République '' (sic !) en s'appuyant sur d'aussi minables supposés '' blowbacks ''. Pauvre République dont ils trahissent par ailleurs quotidiennement tant la lettre que l'esprit … par manque passager d'esprit '' légiste '' opposé à toute conception d'État dans l'Etat. Particulièrement la leur.
D'où mes textes. Et les liens proposés.
Paul De Marco © La Commune Inc, January, 2011.
It is not my intention to meddle in the internal affairs of States : One will note the original date of composition of the first two articles posted here, namely Islam, esprit républicain, socialisme et indépendance and Three choices for Islam.
I claim no theological expertise. It is not my concern here. I am specialized in International Relations (International Political Economy.) From this stand point, the Arabic and Muslim world follows the same universal laws demonstrated by historical materialism, if you will the successor of historical sociology as invented by Ibn Khaldun and of the Scienza nuova of Giambattista Vico : The greatest mistake which could be mutually made, would be to blindly fall prey to the temptation to tightly segregate the cultural, spiritual, socio-economic and political Muslim space within pseudo-categories presented as too hermetic to be within reach of other people. Indeed, this is precisely the self-serving trap imagined by the obscurantist exclusivists of all stripes, particularly in the West. Anyone minimally interested in history knows that these pretences to vilify or demonize other people as '' barbarians'', ''terrorists'' or even ''aliens'' lack any foundations. On the contrary, today, like yesterday during the First and Second Renaissance in Europe, dialogue between civilizations proves to be the unique element capable to dissipate the hysteric noise and furry artificially spun out by the dominant classes. It has thus become imperative to react to the truck-loads of ineptitudes daily unloaded in the West by the likes of Huntington, Bernard Lewis, too many mediatic scribblers often on the pay-list of Nato or of Agencies such as USAID or those belonging to Soros and Cie ; this is disciplined if subaltern and venal troupe always ready to intone the same chorus from the same partition at the least signal from their masters; to these must be added the epigones of the obscurantist so-called ''Hundred doors'' of '' Orient '' trumpeted by Le Monde diplomatique that actually play a role diametrically opposed to the one once played by the profuse editing of the Thousand and one Nights in Europe during the XVIII and XIX Centuries. Epistemological decentration (Piaget) and voluntary mystification are not compatible. Reality is everywhere the same, the Orient (in Mercator's maps) does not necessitate any particular initiation of '' dispensation '' to be understood, albeit it demands some critical honesty. The fundamental problems which confront all people are everywhere the same: they differ in degree (for instance, the degree of internal and external exploitation) and certainly not in nature.
Yet, as popular wisdom teaches, it is always preferable to know what we are talking about, limiting one's comments to what our knowledge warrant. My own lacunae here are obvious, if for no other reasons because of the amount of trustworthy translations and commentaries available. Nevertheless, I believe that the present day crusaders want, ''once again'', to separate us from the Arabic and Muslim civilization, not because it would be inaccessible to us, but instead because this '' separation '' constitute the essential step in their attempt to ''return'' us all into the archaic tracks of rabbinico-Nietzschean obscurantism characterized by their own ''control over the flows of communication'', and by the anti-constitutional imposition through the rabbinico-Nietzschean Hammer of a so-called ''deference towards Authority''. There is no Authority except that embodied in Reason legally exercised by free consciences: Lest one would pretend differently, the law in necessarily the same for all. Too many miserable little known, but still tolerated, manipulators aspire at auto-designating themselves as new ''hussards of the Republic'' (sic!), while ushering many other miserable supposed ''blowbacks''. Poor Republic, daily betrayed in both its letter and its spirit … simply for lack to the minimal ''légiste'' spirit naturally opposed to any concept of State within the State. Particularly of their own kind.
Hence, my texts. And the links proposed.
Paul De Marco © La Commune Inc, January, 2011.
ISLAM, ESPRIT REPUBLICAIN, SOCIALISME ET INDEPENDANCE
Le discours sur ''le joli temps des colonies'' ne se comprend pas sans la défaite historique du FLN et du socialisme algérien résultant de la corruption capitaliste et de l'acculturation de ses élites. Cette défaite ouvre la voie à tous les ''retours'', y compris celui impliqué par la loi de février 2005 en France. Ne manque plus alors pour couronner cette Restauration que le retour triomphant en Algérie de ces citoyens devenus ''Français'' lorsque les Algériens ne l'étaient pas encore. C'est-là un processus rendu possible par la récente intégration philo-sémite nietzschéenne de l'Algérie à l'empire néolibéral croisé (Bien entendu, il en va de même pour la Mauritanie et tant d'autres pays africains ou simplement de culture musulmane!) La ruine culturelle et économique due à la subordination économique et idéologique de ces pays est donc assurée pour longtemps, à moins d'un sursaut salutaire.
En Algérie, la ruine du socialisme algérien a vu la montée des islamistes opposés aux partages des dépouilles entre clans, en particulier ceux liés aux cadres dirigeants du FLN en place et de l'armée. Ce courant, vainqueur des élections, fut massacré par la stratégie de la terreur appliquée avec une férocité inouïe par l'armée et les services secrets algériens, forts de la complicité vénale des anciennes puissances coloniales occidentales. La laïcité et la liberté de presse (au profit de celles et ceux que Vercors qualifiait d' ''animaux naturés'') devirent le masque médiatique de choix en vue de conserver une modique apparence de légitimation aux yeux de l'Occident … et, le croira-t-on? … de la France. La privatisation de l'économie algérienne, opérée en grande partie au bénéfice des étrangers et des anciens pays coloniaux, auxquels s'ajoutèrent les USA, est le substrat matériel de tous ces ''retours'' régressifs joli temps des colonies et de la ''démocratie'' néolibérale au service des maetres externes et des laquais compradores internes, qui savent de nouveau plier l'échine et se taire.
Tout cela est pitoyable puisque la montée en flèche du prix du pétrole et des matières premières algériennes, alliée à ses importantes ressources humaines, domestiques ou émigrées, ainsi que l'irruption sur scène de nouveaux clients (Chine, Inde etc.) sont susceptibles d'assurer une très large marge de manœuvre internationale. Ces facteurs pourraient permettre à l'Algérie de rétablir rapidement la propriété collective de tous les moyens de production stratégiques afin d'assurer sa cohérence industrielle planification centrale de l'économie - dans la plus parfaite indépendance; c'est-à-dire, au-delà des relations lourdement asymétriques entretenues avec les anciennes puissances coloniales, leurs réseaux en place et leurs bagages culturels désormais débilitants.
Ce système serait par ailleurs flexible (voir les ''époques'' décrites dans mon Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme et dans mon Keynésianisme, Marxisme, Stabilité Economique et croissance disponibles dans la Section Livres de ce site.) Il serait éminemment compatible avec une interprétation authentique de l'Islam, une interprétation qui considérerait par conséquent en tout premier lieu ce qui tient entre les deux couvertures du Livre, puisque les traditions au sein du monde islamique ne sont pas homogènes; elles doivent donc évoluer avec leur temps selon son esprit et certainement pas selon sa seule lettre, ce que la civilisation musulmane a démontré avec brio des siècles durant, en particulier lors de son apogée. En effet, le Coran interdit le profit individuel comme formes d'exploitation et d'usure; mais il permet le ''crédit'' non spéculatif, instrument nécessaire à l'harmonisation des cycles de la production, de la distribution et de la consommation. Ainsi les institutions de ''crédit'' dans le monde musulman devraient être strictement sous contrôle de l'Etat et de coopératives à vocation publique. C'est dans ce sens que s'entend la ''propriété privée'' dans le Coran: une propriété-possession privée qui récompense strictement le travail de chacun, tout en maintenant l'obligation, par la sakkat, et ses dérivés modernes, d'une redistribution égalitaire de la richesse sociale.
J'ai dit ailleurs que la progression fulgurante de l'Islam à son origine dans le bassin Sud de la Méditerranée et au Proche et Moyen Orients était due à sa nature égalitaire plus évoluée que chez ses rivaux. Une caractéristique universalisante et moderne héritée de l'histoire de la longue lutte contre l'esclavage, de Spartacus au Christ incluant, bien entendu, les prophètes égalitaires de l'Ancien Testament (Livre souvent copié de textes mésopotamiens plus anciens); y contribuèrent également les apports égalitaires et compassionnels allant dans le même sens qui furent empruntés, entre autre, aux cultures situées à l'Est de sa zone d'expansion initiale. Mais, phénomène totalement perdu de vue aujourd'hui, s'y ajoutait également un progrès, inégal9 à l'époque, qui concernait la liberté des femmes; il y avait-là une avancée civilisationnelle importante qui soutenait aisément la comparaison avec les mœurs des sociétés préexistantes, uniformément soumises au droit patriarcal romain depuis la chute de Carthage et de son système mythologique et cosmogonique. La femme pouvait désormais hériter d'une partie des biens familiaux, elle restait en possession de sa dot et pouvait théoriquement recourir au divorce. Il s'agit-là de principes éminemment adaptables aux exigences modernes ainsi qu'il fut dit récemment, en particulier par des religieux iraniens. On pense par exemple aux adaptations rendues nécessaires par la généralisation de la famille dite nucléaire du fait de l'industrialisation et de la modernisation sociale.
La modernité et la force d'adaptation égalitaire de l'Islam ne sont plus à démontrer. En réalité, c'est là l'aspect authentiquement décisoire qui distingue l'Islam à ses heures d'apogée. L'impression et la réalité parfois contraires sont dues au repli sur soi provoqué par le colonialisme et par le néocolonialisme, repli aujourd'hui aggravé par l'absence d'une paix juste avec un Etat israélien reconnaissant pleinement l'Etat et les droits de tous les Palestiniens. Malgré la transitoire unanimité idéologique de façade actuelle, force est de constater que l'exclusivisme juif, déjà dénoncé par Karl Marx dans sa Question Juive, mais particulièrement dans sa forme sioniste actuelle, soit aussi peu compatible avec la tolérance légendaire de l'Islam pour toutes les religions du Livre qu'avec les principes républicains occidentaux, reposant sur la Déclaration Universelle des Droits Individuels et Sociaux de l'Homme. Exclusivisme et universalité sont forcément antinomiques, le singulier pouvant à la rigueur être une monstruosité agitée par ses démons familiers mais jamais une expression extra-ordinaire acceptable ou crédible de l'universel. Ces perceptions négatives relèvent aussi de l'émergence de théologies régressives, à vrai dire plus identitaires qu'islamiques, que tentèrent d'articuler les élites compradores arabes et musulmanes pour mieux justifier leur subordination dynastique aux empires dominants de référence, légitimant ainsi leur statut de domestiques attitrés … Naturellement, ces régimes tentent de donner le change en s'auto-instituant en garants de l'intégrité d'un Islam, à vrai dire inféodé et, par conséquent, forcément borné sur le plan culturel et scientifique ! L'exemple primordial de ce phénomène rétrograde et pervers demeure le wahhabisme. La trame coloniale et néocoloniale sur laquelle il s'agrippa est connue: son ère d'influence géographique fut découpée par les empires existants selon un principe simple mais rudement efficace visant à assurer la vulnérabilité et la vassalité de ces régimes artificiels, à savoir ''séparer les ressources notamment pétrolières d'avec les populations'' de l'ancien Empire Ottoman. Cette stratégie, visible à l'œil nu au sien du monde arabe, est partout perceptible en Afrique. Aux ravages du sectarisme monarchique et réactionnaire, il convient d'ajouter ceux involontairement causés par un certain modernisme consumériste en prise asymétrique avec l'impérialisme et ses centres de production et d'accaparement des richesses. Ce modernisme acculturé mettait forcément la charrue avant les bœufs en voulant instaurer une laïcité à l'occidentale contre l'Islam, en oubliant que cette laïcité pouvait tout naturellement éclore de l'intérieur, en s'appuyant sur l'esprit même de l'Islam et donc sur le principe de tolérance qui constitue la règle d'interprétation primordiale et nécessaire de tout le Coran.
Est-il besoin de mentionner en ce qui concerne l'habeas corpus et le respect de la vie privée et de l'intimité des gens, ces éléments fondamentaux des droits de l'Homme, que le Coran affirme, en toute connaissance de cause voir la psychoanalyse marxiste développée dans mon Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme qu'il ne saurait y avoir de ''contrainte en religion'' ni, par conséquent, en matière d'investigation scientifique, dès lors qu'elle est conduite avec la rigueur nécessaire: L'injonction emblématique demeure : ''Lis !Lis !Lis !'' - .
Ceci se comprend également en conjonction avec la tolérance inhérente aux civilisations islamiques, contrairement à ce qu'en dit une propagande belliqueuse émanant des discours haineux de tant de furibonds nouveaux Sabbatan Zevi et autres néo-croisés, qui cherchent '' encore une fois '' de manière pathologique à s'instituer '' Sultan à la place du Sultan ''. A cette tolérance ontologique de l'Islam ne faisait pas pendant à un fumeux concept augustinien de '' guerre juste '', ce summum de la Realpolitik croisée d'antan et de son bégaiement impérial contemporain, source profondément enracinée de son manichéisme de caste dominante qui cherche toujours à distinguer ceux qui sont désignés d'office comme '' ennemi '' et comme '' terroristes '' (a) et les putatifs '' maîtres du monde ''. Elle reposait au contraire sur une théorisation tranquille de la '' légitime défense ''. Ceci apparaît avec la plus grande clarté dans les pages ''militaires'' du Coran. La tolérance pour les ''religions des Livres'' doit naturellement être étendue en prenant conscience du fait que la réflexion religieuse antique, lorsqu'elle est exempte des nécessaires remises à date, risque trop souvent de se confondre avec les superstitions que le Prophète combattait, un pitoyable destin contre-nature auquel elle peut seule échapper en se doublant qu'une herméneutique critique de qualité. Ce n'est pas un hasard si les sciences, la logique formalisée algèbre -, la philosophie (Al Ghazali et Ibn Ruchd, en particulier) ainsi que la sociologie et l'histoire se développèrent avec éclat aux heures les plus lumineuses de l'Islam. Tout ceci se résume de manière superbe par la conciliation du Coran avec la Déclaration Universelles des Droits de l'Homme que l'on doit à des personnes éclairées comme Ben Bella et d'autres esprits progressistes comme lui. Ceci n'est pas étonnant puisque l'Islam contribua, bien plus qu'on ne le dit, à poser les fondements même de cette modernité inscrite dans la Déclaration Universelle. A titre d'exemple, le Coran sécularisa le devenir éthico-politique millénariste et l'acheva en déclarant Mohamed comme le dernier des Prophètes: le devenir humain devenait ainsi un devenir propulsé par la raison et par la foi (c'est-à-dire un noyau éthique non contingent) et non plus l'expression aliénée et subalterne d'un salut extérieur. Al Ghazali, Ibn Rouschd et Ibn Khaldoun font foi de ce développement civilisationnel primordial, non encore entièrement intégré par les deux autres grandes religions dites monothéistes, particulièrement par la plus archaïque, la religion juive, encore toute empêtrée dans son théocratisme raciste et exclusiviste.)
Par ailleurs, la simple prudence veut que l'on ne tombât pas béatement dans le travers acculturé et borné qui oppose de manière aussi convenue que sectaire Traditions et Droits de l'Homme. Les traditions doivent évoluer sous le coup des luttes populaires démocratiques ainsi que des apports de la science et de la réflexion, de sorte que le respect de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits Sociaux et Individuels de l'Homme devient la pierre de touche de l'esprit de tolérance, en terres islamiques comme partout ailleurs. Ces évolutions ne se décrètent pas: elles doivent être développées au sein du peuple et de ses ''élites''. Le rôle des dirigeants du moment étant d'assurer le respect de tous, leur liberté de suivre les traditions ou pas, et surtout la liberté de déterminer par eux-mêmes le degré de leur éventuelle observance. Mais ceci n'est plus spécifique à l'Islam, c'est le lot de toutes les sociétés avancées qui font de la tolérance et de la qualité ''spirituelle'' le signe du degré de civilisation atteint. A mon sens, ce terme ''spirituel'' singularise déjà à l'époque la réflexion du Prophète dans le Coran. Il va bien au-delà de ce qui est traditionnellement entendu par le terme ''religion'' et par ses rituels, et donc par ce qui est ordinairement entendu comme ''traditions''; dans les meilleurs des cas, ces traditions servent comme pédagogie pour les masses au sein de sociétés dans lesquelles l'éducation publique et l'affinement de la raison ne sont pas encore suffisamment développés et généralisés. Mais la réflexion coranique va également au-delà des superstitions millénaristes et kabbalistiques avec leur potentiel régressif; de fait, le Prophète chercha à y mettre un terme en se déclarant le dernier prophète afin de clore définitivement ces débats débilitants, propres à fourvoyer les hommes et à alimenter de meurtrières croisades sans réels lendemains, puisqu'elles troquent sans cesse la conscience pour un temple de pierre. Certains pourront pousser plus avant l'analyse du rôle pédagogique accru de la Tradition (locale …) en terres d'Islam dans la mesure même ou l'on refusait de tirer partie à cette fin de l'imagerie visuelle si chère par ailleurs au grand mystique Joachim de Flore, grand concepteur de nouvelles Figures, qui y voit pour sa part un moyen d'analyse figuratif et analogique accessible aux masses, et préliminaire à une réflexion plus poussée et forcément plus abstraite, sans jamais tomber pour autant dans le travers de l'idolâtrie.
Nous avons-là le contraire de l'obscurantisme cultivé à des fins de préservation exclusiviste de castes et de classes dirigeantes, voire d'une race donnée comme divinement mais exclusivement élue. En guise d'illustration, notons rapidement que la kabbale eut une origine mystificatrice identique à celle de la soi-disant Sibylle biblique. On sait que cette dernière visait à miner les valeurs universelles véhiculées par le concept romain de citoyenneté. La première quant à elle visait à enfouir, sous d'épaisses couches d'obscurantisme et de crédulité pseudo-magique, l'universalisme égalitaire résultant de la sécularisation de l'Esprit par Joachim de Flore sécularisation qui peut se comprendre, si l'on veut, comme un complément à l'œuvre politique du Prophète, puisque cette sécularisation de l'Esprit, au bénéfice de tous, fonde l'égalité humaine sur le développement de la conscience informée par la lumière de la science. En tout état de cause, la Première Renaissance occidentale ne se comprend pas sans le resourcement intellectuel critique sur l'autre rive de la Méditerranée. L'injonction suprême reste celle de l'étude appliquée (Lis ! Lis !Lis !). Lénine, reprenant à sa façon la longue lignée de la pensée égalitaire mondiale, énonça que '' la liberté est l'esthétique de l'égalité ''. Toute liberté ne reposant pas sur la conviction intime de l'égalité humaine n'est jamais que l'expression d'une barbarie plus ou moins assumée. Cet égalitarisme ontologique poussait d'ailleurs Joachim à considérer que la seule Jérusalem authentique était la conscience humaine, ce qui forcément n'était plus du goût des croisés ni de leurs financiers, tant juifs que chrétiens. Pour eux, Jérusalem, le nouveau Veau d'Or, représentait surtout le lucratif point de contrôle de l'aboutissement de la Route de la Soie sur la Méditerranée, et donc du juteux commerce des épices, de la soie et des porcelaines fines. Cette mystification oeuvrant en flux continus comme '' plagiats renversés et obscurantistes '' fait partie de la Doxa religieuse exclusiviste juive au même titre que l'immaculée conception des Chrétiens, qui renvoie, elle aussi, à une légitimation plus ancienne de la domination politique (royauté de droit divin) dont même Alexandre le Grand se réclamera. Pour cette doxa, il s'agit tout bonnement de conserver les privilèges de castes auto-élues en barrant le chemin vers l'Arbre de la science, dont les fruits sont seuls capables d'informer la connaissance.
Cette dérive fut renforcée dès l'origine par le déplacement de la secte juive et de quelques autres apparentées vers les marches de l'Empire babylonien en contact avec l'empire égyptien puis hittite. La nécessité diplomatique dans une région aussi contestée fit le reste (Ceci inclut bien entendu la narration mythologique, pourtant dépourvue de toute preuve archéologique, portant sur l'assassinat du Grand Prêtre par Salomon pour établir la royauté … au grand dam de Spinoza … Cette démagogie, déjà férocement située par delà le bien et le mal, révèle en fait plus qu'elle n'occulte.) Cette nécessité diplomatique explique également la narration biblique sectairement entretenue au nom d'une falsification du monothéisme égyptien et perse. Ce dernier, de même que plus tard l'apport philosophique essentiel de Pytagore-Socrate distinguant le Bien du Bon contre le laissez-aller éthique et le relativisme intellectuel des mythologies et de la propagande sophiste, fut repris de manière purement raciste pour fixer un peuple récalcitrant sur les marches de l'Empire. Ainsi ces marches déjà fortement contestées furent décrites comme une '' Terre promise '' (par le dieu sur terre, le souverain) : Dès lors, l'héritage d'Abraham trop proche de son origine sumérienne avec ses Eloym fut jeté sur la tête d'un peuple accusé de vouloir retourner à ses origines, soit au bon vieux Marduc, donné comme Veau d'or (Il est vrai qu'entre-temps un immense progrès civilisationnel fut solidement acquis au contact des Egyptiens, à savoir la répudiation des sacrifices humains substitués par des offrandes.) L'Epopée de Gilgamesh fut soigneusement occultée jusqu'à aujourd'hui: On sait pourtant qu'il en existe un fragment dans les Manuscrits de la Mer Morte et que la traduction anglaise d'une copie partielle, antérieurement retrouvée par les archéologues, fut donnée dès le début des années 1830. La Légende de Sargon fut elle-même instrumentalisée pour les besoins de la cause afin de créer le personnage biblique de Moïse, légitimant ainsi une guerre de conquête suivie par de nombreux génocides des populations locales, violences et génocides décrits avec délectation, non pas par le Coran, mais bien par l'Ancien testament juif. Des juristes manquant d'imagination copièrent le Code Hammourabi pour en faire leur Lévitique, mais pointilleusement augmenté à la sauce locale la plus sectaire qui soit.
Et ainsi de suite. Le renversement obscurantiste juif ne date donc pas d'hier. Ses racines de caste sont lointaines. Il s'explique aisément. Sa renaissance sectaire est toujours due à une '' Nouvelle alliance '' théocratique raciste, instrumentalisant les concepts archaïques de '' race élue '' et de Terre promise, grâce au soutien de pouvoirs impériaux Gentils utilisant ces narrations exclusivistes à leurs propres fins. Processus exclusiviste ambigu qui aboutit au mieux à l'équivoque pitre emblématique décrite par le Marchand de Venise de Shakespeare avec son illusion du '' pound of flesh ''. On voit les preuves de ce renversement partout, toujours effectué avec la même méthode : avant la Sibylle romaine, la grande hantise religieuse juive fut la contribution scientifique de Pythagore qui, en Calabre, renvoyait à des cultes plus anciens dont celui, initiatique, de Héraclès. Ainsi naquît la pratique abrutissante et psychologiquement létale de la gematrica, ou plutôt des gématricas contradictoires entre elles comme le note Scholem - que la kabbale réintégra avec un compendium débilitant de magie, le plus souvent noire. Hegel eut droit à son Feuerbach sans qui Nietzsche serait difficilement pensable. Au XXè siècle cette mystification prit des formes diverses allant de la pensée inégalitaire et anti-historique mais judaïsante de Gobineau et de Nietzsche, à ses suites sanguinaires et manipulatrices n'ayant rien à envier aux recettes, elles-mêmes en partie trafiquées, du Protocole des Sages de Sion - avec Chamberlain, Max Warburg, Sarfatti etc, etc. La lutte des loges rabbinico-nietzschéennes contre le communisme qui avait débuté avec les diatribes de Steiner contre Marx, s'était poursuivie par la trahison du marxisme par ceux que Lénine qualifia de ''renégat'' en sous-estimant la trahison de son propre secrétaire juif Kamenev ou encore la férocité des juifs de Weimar contre les Spartakistes. Cette trahison fut portée à son comble par Rosenberg et Yeshov, ainsi que par leurs élèves, exclusivistes à leur façon, dont le sioniste fasciste Jabotinsky et le sioniste nazi et pitre Abba Haimeir un des supporteurs attardés, débiles et suicidaires du nazifascisme, pour cause de '' pulpe anti-communiste ''…
A vrai dire, avant le socialisme c'est l'égalité républicaine qui fit les frais de cette haine théocratique, raciste et exclusiviste comme en témoigne la trahison de Edmund Burke, opposant vénalement la Tradition à l'Egalité selon Thomas Paine. Sur le champs de bataille proprement dit ce fut pire : ainsi l'adepte de la Société des Amis du Crime, le marquis de Sade, s'infiltrant à dessein dans la Section des Piques pour pousser la justice révolutionnaire à se transformer en Terreur aveugle par laquelle la Révolution, savamment manipulée de l'intérieur, finissait par manger ses propres enfants, Sade étant bien entendu le modèle du nabot Yeshov, sorti tout droit du rang des petits espions baltes, fabriqués par les loges de la Maison Gotha (Chamberlain, Turn und Taxi etc.) et de ses branches anglaises incluses forcées in extremis à changer de nom, et surtout par le maître espion du Kaiser, le juif Max Warburg. (On sait qu'à l'instar de Nietzsche, ce dernier sombra dans la démence comme le pitre qu'il était.) Contrairement aux Zélotes de Massada ou encore à un psychopathe comme Sharon, des Mussolini ou des Hitler ne sont pas des incarnations sui generis de processus historiques naturels : Ce sont de purs produits, d'ailleurs bassement vénaux, des sempiternelles et rances prouesses rabbinico-maçonniques. En ce qui concerne le monde moderne chacun sait à quoi s'en tenir : pour ma part je renvoie modestement aux trop nombreux pitres qui s'ingénièrent vainement à vouloir occulter et renverser le sens de mon œuvre pour se révéler, à la lueur crue de la critique scientifique, pour ce qu'ils sont à la vérité, c'est-à-dire des ânes (hi-han!) Et des criminels.
Aussi incroyablement que cela puisse paraître aujourd'hui, il nous faut encore endurer les outrances de nombreux rabbins du genre d'Ovadia Yossef, ainsi que celles des héritiers de Sharon ou de Sharansky et de tant d'autres Netannyahou ... Sans oublier celles de leurs soutiens exclusivistes transitoires parmi les '' born-again '' et les Evangélistes américains. Rappelons que ces groupes croient dur comme fer à la Seconde Venue du Messie qui accomplira enfin la prophétie de la réunion de tous les Juifs en Israël, en vu de l'accomplissement de l'acte final de cette narration, au cours duquel seule une infime minorité de convertis parmi les Hébreux survivra à la '' justice divine ''. De quoi méditer sur la '' pitrerie '' de tous les Finkielkraut de ce monde et de leur idéal de '' séparation '', Mur de l'Apartheid en prime ! (Seraient-ils si comblés que cela en obtenant gain de cause, du haut de leur infime minorité démographique et d'un statut de '' victime '' par excellence, par ailleurs auto-octroyé, mais désormais chancelant sous le coup de trop de faits exclusivistes-racistes imposés par la force brute et le Marteau rabbinico-nietzschéen à l'échelle du globe transformé ainsi chaque jour d'avantage en vaste Palestine?)
S'agissant du monde contemporain, on ne saurait passer sous silence la pollution sioniste du socialisme bâtit sur une équivoque du jeune Marx concernant Feuerbach, et sur la dangereuse occultation de sa Question Juive. Dans son œuvre majeure, la Sainte Famille dont la Question Juive fait partie, Marx s'émancipait en communiste accompli en réglant ses comptes philosophiques et politiques: Ceci concerna également Feuerbach quoiqu'avec une réserve peu coutumière de la part du théoricien du Manifeste communiste et du Capital. Cette dernière trace d'admiration estudiantine fut malheureusement maintenue par Engels. Ainsi, contre la volonté des fondateurs, le socialisme marxiste fut accompagné depuis ses origines d'une infiltration permanente en vue de dévoyer le mouvement 9galitaire, en le poussant, au mieux, dans les bras démagogiques et mystificateurs de l' '' égalité des chances '' wébérienne et libériste, entendue comme un Darwinisme social consacré et re-conduit en permanence par les asymétries du marché capitaliste. Depuis la chute de l'URSS, s'y ajoute la prétention d'enfoncer dans la gorge des Gentils une Shoah sélective (b) en lieu et place de la célébration de la Résistance et de la Victoire contre le nazifascisme. Cette ignoble Shoah exclusiviste, d'ailleurs affublée d'un terme étranger à nos langues occidentales, vise en gros à occulter les biens plus nombreuses et variées victimes non-juives du nazifascisme, tout en culpabilisant les Gentils par un retournement démagogique du déicide juif : les Gentils seraient pour leur part coupables d'avoir retourné contre les philosémites rabbinico-nietzschéens l'exclusivisme appris à leur école; pour expier cette '' faute '', il leur faudrait maintenant faire pénitence envers la seule '' race élue '', et pousser la piété jusqu'à célébrer des Hommes Justes comme l'industriel nazi Schindler et son comptable juif Stern ! Tout serait ainsi prêt pour une redite, un bégaiement de l'histoire, un retour au fascisme philosémite, avec tant et plus de Mussolini dans le rôle de Grands Protecteurs des Juifs, tel que le propageait une Margherita Sarfatti avant et même après 1938… ! Pouah !)
Parce qu'elle contient une vérité générale connue, quoique trop souvent passée sous silence, j'ajoute que la première dérive du socialisme algérien fut sa concession en matière de services sociaux et d'éducation publique (cette dernière rapidement confondue avec l'éducation religieuse qui pourtant devrait être axée sur l'histoire des religions dont elle n'est qu'une partie.) Resitué dans son temps, le Coran apparaît d'ailleurs comme une critique moderne de l'histoire des religions au nom d'une spiritualité plus cohérente, plus humaine et plus élevée. Selon ce que nous avons noté plus haut, l'esprit du Coran est égalitaire, tolérant et re-distributeur. L'équité et la justice exigent alors que ces fonctions sociales primordiales soient exercées par l'Etat au nom de la collectivité entière, mais dans un contexte flexible qui ne brime pas ce que la tolérance cherche à protéger. Mon idéal serait alors d'ajouter des cours de religion facultatifs dans les écoles pour les différentes confessions, tout en les complétant par des cours obligatoires d'histoire des religions afin de contribuer au développement de cette herméneutique critique, sans laquelle la qualité spirituelle ne saurait se développer, faisant ainsi pièce à ce que j'ai dénoncé ailleurs comme '' dialectique tronquée '' ; une telle dialectique partielle reste ontologiquement et méthodiquement incapable de réaliser le moindre '' dépassement '' sinon par l'artifice de catéchisme extérieurement imposés, laïques ou religieux (voir Spoliation dans mon Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme dont la seconde partie expose les linéaments essentiels de la psychoanalyse marxiste.) Dans le pire des cas, l'ignorance entretenue sur laquelle elle repose finit, grâce aux sentiments d'aliénation résiduels refoulés, à présenter les vielles recettes de l'asservissement obscurantisme comme des planches de salut (ex., la Pologne de Walesa et Wojtyla, les pitres subalternes soudoyés par la CIA et par Brzesinski. Le choix donc entre la '' vierge noire '' aux origines maçonniques refoulées ou les Amis de la bière …) En ce sens, les écoles privées, et en particulier les écoles privées confessionnelles, constituent une grave régression, une haute trahison de l'esprit républicain, mais également de l'esprit égalitaire et non superstitieux du Coran. Pour admettre cela, il faut par contre abandonner l'idée préconçue de caste, selon laquelle certains esprits seraient mieux dotés que d'autres une vision tout aussi contraire à l'Islam qu'au socratisme et à la pédagogie moderne. Trop de gens se font des illusions sur leurs connaissances personnelles, ils préjugent de leur intelligence pour mieux dissimuler leur profonde ignorance, derrière le mince voile de leur statut social, toujours entièrement dépendant d'une systémique sélection acquise de caste et de classe. Ce bien peu '' noble mensonge '', assidûment entretenu par divers opiums du peuple assistés au besoin par le Marteau nietzschéen, a pour unique objectif la protection de leurs positions sociales largement imméritées : C'est du moins ainsi que, pour ma part, je reformulerais le cœur de l'argument de Al Ghazali (foi et raison) en tenant compte du modernisme égalitaire que je lis dans le Coran.
J'ajoute que les régimes islamiques les mieux dotés pour revenir en toute indépendance sur les devants de la scène, afin de re-prendre leur juste place dans la marche civilisationnelle collective, sont justement ceux qui re-apprennent à voir la modernité (scientifique, militaire, philosophique etc.,) au cœur du Coran. Car modernité authentique ne veut jamais dire autre chose que progrès dans l'affirmation de l'égalité intrinsèque de chaque être humain, partout dans le monde. Pour moi, l'Islam ne se comprend pas sans compatibilité avec l'Etat social le plus avancé. Le socialisme islamique républicain est déjà en marche derrière le bruit et la fureur de ce début du XXIè siècle.
Paul De Marco,
Copyright © Paul De Marco, Le 27 juillet 2006 (Ce texte, ainsi que la note du 23 janvier 2007, furent relus fin octobre 2010, avec les ajouts suivants: paragraphe sur la kabbale mieux élaboré dans le texte et notes a et b ci-dessous.)
23 janvier 2007 : Dans la discussion sur les traditions j'ai oublié d'ajouter:
1) Vin et jeux : la sagesse hellénique est reprise par le Coran contre les excès, car la règle demeure l'absence de ''contrainte en religion''. En fait, ce qui est visé, c'est surtout ce qui affecte ou altère les facultés de la conscience et du libre arbitre nécessaire aux relations entre l'homme et ''dieu''. Les soufis notamment Afiz e Qayamm en font une métaphore pour la recherche spirituelle. Les derviches utilisent pour leur part des moyens mécaniques (ces pratiques plus anciennes que le yoga actuel, seront reprises par les pénitents et par les ordres religieux ex. les Jésuites- chrétiens, suite à leur retour des croisades ou de leurs voyages à l'Est quoique sous d'autres formes. Ce sont toujours des prothèses, souvent détournées de leur sens affiché. Durant les croisades, le haschich, par exemple, était affaire de sectes et de guerre, tout simplement.
2) Le voile : la politique des courtisans n'est pas celle du Prophète lui-même ; en tout cas, il s'agit ici d'une pratique tardive dans la vie du Prophète, suivant le respect des traditions locales de l'heure, plutôt que des principes fondamentaux de la religion, qui lui sont indépendants. Il s'agit de concessions politiques qui furent obtenues plus aisément que celles imposées localement aux prescriptions coraniques concernant l'héritage des filles. En fait, le port du voile varie à l'extrême selon les temps historiques, les aires géographiques et les classes sociales. Aujourd'hui, cela relèverait moins de la pudeur (empruntée aux lois romaines), comprise comme soumission des femmes, que du respect de l'égalité féminine. Les lois sur la famille et sur la parité des genres sont donc le ''voile'' (la médiation) contemporain. Cependant, comme il s'agit de traditions centenaires maquillées par des préceptes religieux (fiq en lieu et place de la charria et de l'esprit véritable de la spiritualité coranique) l'évolution se fera doucement en allant du figuratif à l'essentiel, et non l'inverse. Voyez les femmes en noires dans la Méditerranée chrétienne ! Mais voyez également la représentation des femmes iraniennes dans les domaines scientifiques et politiques, de loin supérieure à nombres de sociétés chrétiennes occidentales considérées comme des sociétés avancées. On confond souvent la nécessaire liberté d'expression et d'apprentissage des jeunes générations avec dieu sait quoi !
3) Les tabous alimentaires. Dans le désert, le ver solitaire pouvait être un terrible fléau. Là encore, il s'agit d'un principe de précaution plutôt que d'un précepte religieux incontournable. Mais les habitudes ont la vie coriace. Exemple : les sauterelles, nourriture de Saint Jean, sont riches en protéines. Certains peuples les mangent, mais nous ? Pourtant nous mangeons bien des escargots et des grenouilles - enfin les longues cuisses … !
a) j'ai déjà eu l'occasion de dénoncer les absurdités criminelles proférées à longueur de journée par le rabbin Yossef ; ce raciste théocratique qu'aucune autre époque n'aurait toléré trop longtemps en liberté, n'a que des noms d'oiseaux pour ses voisins non-juifs mais également pour les juifs qui ne pensent pas comme lui. Dernièrement, en bon connaisseur de l'objectif réel du credo d'une Shoah sélective culpabilisante pour les seuls Gentils, il professe que ces derniers ne sont sur terre que pour servir les juifs présumément seuls maîtres du monde. Or, ce type ne peut pas être considéré comme un simple débile dangereux, il est éminemment représentatif des valeurs exclusivistes véhiculées par sa religion car il fut Grand Rabbin sépharade d'Israël. Ce que lui et les siens omettent de dire tout haut, c'est qu'ils croient également que les tribus israélites ne sont sur terre que pour servir les Lévites; de sorte qu'ils accolent des petits points dans l'état civil du pseudo Etat israélien actuel pour déterminer l'origine tribale des personnes. Cette pensée archaïque, raciste, théocratique et sectaire est très en deçà de la Sainte Famille de Marx qui inclut la Question juive . De fait elle est très en deçà de la logique du maître et de l'esclave de Hegel ! Actée politiquement, elle reste diamétralement contraire à toutes les lois internationales connues : elle est une agression permanente à la communauté des peuples. Ce Yossef a, dit-on, une caractéristique qui passe pour un '' don '' du ciel pour qui troque emblématiquement la science pour les prétentions de l'Autorité : il aurait, semble-t-il, pu mémoriser le bottin du téléphone ! Etant pitre, il faut naturellement conduit là où il alla, ainsi qu'il apparaît sans ambigufté dans tous ses dires. On comprend que personne ne l'avertit dans sa jeunesse lorsqu'il démontra de pareilles dispositions : ces groupes se reproduisent ainsi. Mais comment a-t-il pu, toute sa vie durant, faire abstraction, je ne dirais pas des arguments pourtant souvent irréfutables de Spinoza, mais du moins de ceux de Ibn Ezra? Nous notons que ce n'est pas le cas de tous les rabbins ni de Scholem. Pour les élucubrations de ce Yossef voir :a) http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=191782 (cité dans : http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=115210 ) b) www.wikipedia.org
b) Le terme lui-même, tiré de l'hébreu pour occulter celui d'Holocauste que le rabbin Yossef est loin de réfuter dans son sens religieux originel, est impropre car il vise à créer une narration aussi vénale qu'exclusiviste. En complément à la répugnante démagogie qui sous-tend la célébration de Schindler comme Homme Juste (son comptable Stern était pour sa part un '' élu '' …), ce terme vise à imputer comme crime aux Gentils la '' destruction des Juifs '' passant ainsi sous silence toutes les autres victimes politiques, humaines et ethniques du Nazifascisme. Chacun sait ou devrait savoir que les communistes, seuls vrais opposants dès le départ, furent les premières victimes des fascistes et des Nazis ; ils furent suivis de très près par les handicapés physiques ou mentaux, les homosexuels, les races dites inférieures et, bien entendu, les Gitans et les Roms, aujourd'hui encore menacés par le même philosémitisme nietzschéen, Bête renaissante toujours sur les mêmes terreaux. On tente ainsi de passer sous silence le décisif soutien financier, culturel et politique, y compris par le biais des franc-maçonneries et des services secrets, au Nazifascisme jusqu'en 1938, puis de nouveau immédiatement après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, lorsque de nombreux fascistes et nazis furent recrutés dans la lutte contre le communisme. Israël même, comme entité autoproclamée en 1948, n'hésita pas à collaborer dès sa création avec tous les régimes fascistes de l'après guerre, dont le régime de l'Apartheid en Afrique du Sud, et le régime de Pinochet au Chili. Au mépris de la logique implacable de l'exclusivisme, dans une Europe et un Occident cooptés dans les nouvelles croisades sionistes et philosémites nietzschéennes, tous les anciens fascistes sont immédiatement blanchis et adoubés par Israël pour peu qu'ils soient prêts à reconnaître ses prétentions, et bien entendu à allonger les aides et les coopérations économiques. Comme on peut le constater, la falsification de l'Histoire, et la manie de la destruction de la Raison en vue de créer de vénales narrations, ne sont pas, et de loin, des vices staliniens. Pourtant, cette renaissance nauséabonde, de nouveau actée politiquement, est diamétralement opposée à la lettre et à l'esprit de la Charte et de la Déclaration Universelle des Droits Sociaux et Individuels de l'ONU, ainsi que des constitutions issues de la Victoire contre le nazifascisme A titre d'exemple, l'Article XII des Dispositions finales et transitoires de la Constitution italienne ne permet en rien la criminelle désinvolture de qui désirerait décrire ses propres crimes comme '' acqua passata '' ; au contraire, elle interdit formellement toute forme de fascisme, point essentiel que la dérisoire, mais de nouveau intrigante communauté juive italienne, semble vouloir oublier aujourd'hui, alors qu'elle doit encore présenter des excuses formelles au peuple italien, aux Partisans et aux communistes en tout premier lieu.
On lira également :
a) '' Le récit colonial n'a été pris en charge ni par les partis politiques ni par l'école '' Colonisation. Après une année marquée par de houleux débats sur le passé colonial, l'historien Benjamin Stora revient sur le poids persistant de la guerre d'Algérie dans la société française. http://www.ldh-toulon.net/spip.php?article1407 (Il s'agit d'un commentaire critique sur l'indécente loi de réhabilitation du colonialisme du 23 février 2005.)
b) Les sociétés musulmanes face aux défis de la science LEMONDE.FR | 18.11.10 | 12h39 Mis à jour le 18.11.10 | 13h11 http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2010/11/18/les-societes-musulmanes-face-au-aux-defis-de-la-science_1441778_3232.html (Je noterais seulement que Le Monde publia ce texte alors que j'étais en train d'éditer mon Islam, esprit républicain, socialisme et indépendance, ci-dessus.)
THREE CHOICES FOR ISLAM
The first choice : status quo
The second choice : regressive fundamentalism
The third choice : Islamic socialism
In memory of President Yasser Arafat, whose egalitarian determination and tolerance must remain on inspiration to us all.
After the suicidal betrayal by Israel of the unofficial Geneva Accord, the devastating effect of Arab-Zionism on Palestine has become crystal clear. Evidently, this same right-wing sickness has considerable relevancy for the future of Maghreb, and in particular for the future of Moroccans, Sahrawis and Mauritanians. The same is painfully true for the Arabic Peninsula and indeed for the future of the entire Islamic world.
The Muslim World is in fact confronted by three clear-cut choices, at least until Palestinians are able to regain their Lost Territories and in particular East Jerusalem.
The first choice is a continuation of the current policies, that is to say the continued behavior of Arab and Muslim ''elites'' as servile philo-Semite Nietzschean ''gauleiters''. This means the extension of the Judeo-Fascist trade-off between security and freedom to the whole Muslim world. We would be dealing with a new regime, which, in effect, would be directed against all Muslim citizens, especially those who might want to defend Haram al-Sharif, as well as their own high civilization against Judeo-Fascist neo-crusaders. Already citizens of Muslim origins are heavily discriminated against in all Western countries. This is particularly true in the United States, where the new right-wing Zionists have granted them a yellow passport ( implementing, in effect, an even more insidious form of discrimination, albeit softer than the earlier yellow stars. ) It is therefore clear that right-wing Jews and Americans do not think of Muslims as belonging to the same ''self-elected'' folk. The extension of Iraqi-like resistance movements would seem an inevitable response. This is because, Arab and Muslim elites are collaborating everywhere with the very people who are contriving to perpetuate their perennial subservience and second-class status.
The second choice is but a subordinated and desperate choice. It is one that is over-determined by the brute force with which the first choice is now been implemented. It can be subsumed under the amorphous umbrella of ''Islamic fundamentalism''. Like the neo-crusadersown fundamentalism, this Muslim form too relies on brute force and obscurantism. Judeo-Fascist imperialism having denied the Arab and Muslim world an autonomous insertion within the world economy, the only alternative open to the Islamic fundamentalists is to reassert their absolute class control over their own people. They need to do this even if it means a partial delinking from the official Western dominated international scene. You can witness this process in many different areas such as Iran, Sudan or Northern Nigeria. Sharia has become the symbol of this over-determined political choice : Used in a strict, literal fashion, it catalyses the resentment of a good part of the Muslim population toward an increasingly Judeo-Fascist West. But, at the same time, it serves as a brutal and archaic instrument to assert power over the domestic population. What has being caricatured in the Eighties as the ''dictatorship of the mullahs'' had more than a grain of truth to it. Lapidating, mutilations and a Nietzschean ''return'' to barbarity, incompatible with the teachings of the Prophet, were falsely given as the restoration of ''order'', and therefore as the only way to recover ones own cultural worth and heritage. The Islamic fundamentalist choice is born out of despair and feeds impotence. It is unable to destabilize and counter-balance the Western dominated international regime and its forceful diplomacy and preventive wars, new a trend well illustrated by the sad infighting, mistrust and cultivated impotence which characterizes the Arab League and the OIC. And this necessarily ends up feeding the worst sectarian propensity among the clergy, and among the various Islamic denominations. This infighting is in turn fed by the West according to the old maxim '' divide and conquer''.
Born out of the brute force paradigm, it is clear that this alternative can succeed in its tentative to re-equilibrate the scales only through the acquired mastery of brute force. That is to say through the acquisition of nuclear power and the ballistic means necessary to deliver the war-heads, in order to establish a partial parity with the West, and above all with Israel. However, nothing in the dominant clerical strata, which is leading the Islamic fundamentalist movement, allows anyone to even remotely think that once an asymmetric parity would be achieved ( through a regime known as ''deterrence from the weak to the strong'' ) this dominant clergy would then opt for a modern interpretation of the Sharia, one based on the fundamental Islamic principle according to which there should be ''no constraint in religion''. In other words, a Sharia fully compatible with the Universal Declaration of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms as formulated by the Islamic Declaration of Rights adopted by the Arab League. The regressive propensity to reinforce class control seems to take over from the nonetheless urgent necessity to use the ''spirit'' and the ''heritage'' of Islamic civilization, in order to adapt to the modern world, so as to better shape its becoming. The case of Iran will prove instructive, since it won the power struggle that accompanied its rejection of the Western regional and civilizational diktat, and is currently engaged in the consolidation of its victory in the economic and military fields. Remains to be seen if its cultural and civilizational modernization, propelled by a determined republican spirit, will be able to match its scientific and technological advances. Not surprisingly this is now part of a big domestic debate, the outcome of which is still open. The worst thing that could ever happen to these countries is for there modernizing elite to fall pray to the sirens of ''regime change'', and those of variously colored (''orange'' ''green'' etc. ) philo-Semite Nietzschean so-called ''revolutions''. It is clear, however, that unless a cultural modernization matches the military evolution, the regime will feel an increasing pressure from outside. And this will soon translate into a rampant civil disobedience (or worse ) in the domestic sphere, for lack of comprehensive legitimacy. The demographic structure naturally weighs in favor of the Youth and will thus make the pressure intolerable. No amount of anti-imperialist mobilization will solve this inherent contradiction. Unless there is an Enlightened interpretation of the Prophets own very modern teachings, a regression to a repressive ''dictatorship of the clerics'', cutting them off from their popular bases, will remain the intimate destiny of Islamic fundamentalism. This will amount to a momentous failure for the Muslim world, a-keen only to the disaster engendered by colonialism and neo-colonialism. In the end, the inspiration driven by republican egalitarianism will prove determinant.
These days a charged and false debate is pushed in the forefront : That of democracy, or rather exported Western representative democracy. The propagandists of this debate are the same who are tightly connected with the various US agencies seeking ''regime change'' in the Muslim world (such as Usaid, National Endowment for Democracy -NED-, Soros's agencies etc ... ) Their righteous tone always reaches a higher pitch when the US and Israelis drones blindly proceed with their civilian massacres, ritually masked as ''collateral damages''.
Of course, true democracy would be people's democracy. The etymology of the word makes this crystal clear. Universal suffrage and the secret ballot eventually extended the etymological and operational meaning of democracy to all human beings who were finally acknowledged as equal citizens ( True, this took a longer time for gender political equality and socio-economic parity. ) The fact is that universal suffrage is antithetical to class or minority rule. As even Nietzsche clearly recognized, numbers signify power. Therefore, one needs to explain the political paradox of numbers playing against the masses' own interests. It is not only a matter of a Sun Tzu-like cultivated fragmentation of the electorate, and of tightly private and biased financing. History quickly shows that universal suffrage was only conditionally granted under pressure; and when it finally was, this was done under a double constraint : First, the overt constraint of private property ( including the private property of the mass media. ) This fatally turns the most well-meaning representative democratic system into a demagogic Censitarian system. Second, the covert and most powerful constraint, exercised behind the scene by the Masonic lodges, over and above the selection operated by class education systems. As we all know, even in their most advanced republican forms, this academic selection restricts the egalitarian operation of the Law of Great Numbers, and only favors the few who benefit from their class-family background; incestuous cast and class biases, identical ''mind sets'' if you prefer, do the rest. For instance, we know that in the 60's and 70's in France, at a time when the popular movement pushing for the democratization of education was at its strongest, only 6 percent of peasants' and workers' sons and daughters were registered at the Sorbonne and other universities. Yet, sociology of science Sola Price etc - teaches us that, whereas the last 50 years or so have produced more scientific advances than the whole human history before it, the great majority of modern scientists only have a very average IQ, whatever IQ might mean ... i.e. as usual, the real difference comes from team work, public organization and public funding, which insure institutional scientific stability, as well as the crucial preservation and transmission of scientific memory and achievements over the long term, etc ...
This restrictive idea of bourgeois representative democracy does not serve the West very well. Nor could it be expected to serve the Islamic world much better, at least not without important internal reforms and meaningful additions. To understand this crucial problematic, one should follow Koyré's method of ''mental experiment'', and then check it against past and present practices. Thus, one would make abstraction of private property and try to imagine a true democracy that would include the political, socio-economic ( i.e. economic planning and bureaucracy ) and cultural levels. One would then return to present reality to see how best to advance along the road of real democracy, carefully taking the relations of production into account. For instance, I have tried my hand at the now urgent development of the theory of ''socialist democracy''. This first theoretical take can be seen in the chapter '' Pour le socialisme cubain '' of my book Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme. One of my concerns in this chapter was with the generalization to the whole political system of the first true and organized democratic experiment offered by history, namely ''democratic centralism''. Though it is poorly recognized today, nevertheless the truth is that all modern democratic political parties refer to it, at least in part : When they do not, as is the case with the American political machines or, for that matter, with their belated European monkish imitators now pushing their imported ''primaries'' -, it is a sure sign that we are not dealing with political democracy at all, but rather with sophisticated private systems conceived to eviscerate and usurp it. The importance of structures is well known : These comprise regular party congresses, and other responsible leading instances ( including special congresses and internal referenda when needed ), internal debates and party discipline ( not the least the subordination of party caucuses to party decisions. ) Last but not least, it should equally recognize the crucial role of members and militants over mere sympathizers, or worse, over the ritual mediatic private diktats of opinion polls, etc ... They should not be minimized. However, in my attempt, I soon discovered the essential aspect that was missed in my analysis, namely the necessary and over-determining distinction to be made between the realm of necessity and the realm of liberty. The realm of necessity comprises the sphere of economic production. It entails central planning and thus discipline, or responsible organization if you will; yet, it also preeminently implies the ability to enlarge freedom spaces, thanks to the recurrent rounds of reduction of labor time, naturally in tune with the realistic opportunities afforded by the real productivity achieved ( both micro-economic productivity and macro-economic competitiveness. ) These limitations are inescapable given that neither household nor any Social Formation can live for very long beyond its means. In other words, the determining material conditions of liberty are mostly to be socially produced through the collective control of the Means of production, and through the collective control of the re-allocation of ''social surplus value''. This re-allocation is essential in order to ensure Enlarged Reproduction, thus sustained and continued real prosperity compatible with Ecomarxist principles. According to Marx, we also need to consider the realm of liberty, the core of communist democracy : This has to do with the development and flowering of individual and group personalities, and thus with the utmost respect owed to individual intimacy, privacy, and constitutional rights. Namely all those rights which can be exercised in such a way as not to infringe upon the rights of others or upon collective or public property.
One will quickly note that unless the distinct, yet complementary, logic of each realm is understood, one will fall hopelessly prey to the facile illusions of representative democracy, intended as ( class-dominated ) political pluralism. On the contrary, bourgeois political pluralism, strictly filtered by privately financed political machines and mass media, has one main objective. Namely, to preserve and legitimate the iniquitous constitutional rights of private property, and thus to maintain the strict subordination of the workers to their bosses, the private owners of the Means of production : Ironically, this is called ( bourgeois ) ''industrial democracy''; it always entails the curtailing of the right to strike, when it tolerates it at all. Yet, real democracy is essentially concerned with socio-economic pluralism and with real industrial-economic democracy ( collective property over the Means of production and collective reallocation of ''social surplus value''. ) Given that private or public bureaucracies are effectively useful and unavoidable ( pace Trotsky! ), it is also concerned with their democratization through what I have called ''instances of democratic control'' such as Administrative tribunals, Ombudspersons, Citizens Complaint Committees and so on and so forth; these are reforms which should go hand in hand with real judicial access and accessible legal aid. Real democracy does also advocate the right to recall the leaders ( as pronounced by la Commune de Paris in 1871. ) It is much less concerned with any fake and divisive political pluralism, permanently manipulated through the diktats of private property and private mass media, and through the control exercised behind the scene by exclusivist Masonic lodges through a stringent if occult pre-selection process.
You have perhaps noticed how quick the European bourgeoisies are, including within the self-designated « socialist parties », in learning from Seymour Lipset, Bell, R. Dahl and Cie, after having swallowed whole the canned Campbell soups proposed by the likes of Rawls and Giddens et al., despite ( or because? ) of my warning in my Tous ensemble : Imitating US primaries is now heralded as the only possible way to save the impoverished and dangerously polarized bourgeois electoral system. This is because its well-known effects are to substitute party members and militants with professional and venal electoral costly machines. The direct consequence of this trend is the disenfranchising of close to one half of the potential electorate, which instinctively chooses to abstain from an electoral game in which it obviously has no real voice at all. To this must be added the recent practice of voting through Internet, banking as it is on the information class divide ( and often too, on convenient Diebold voting machines, which leave no or poor paper trails. ) Because this trend naturally affects what Julius Wilson called the ''underclass'', you soon get an accurate picture of the model of bourgeois representative democracy ready for export through '' regime change'', ''civilizations clashes'', and preventive wars …! I personally believe that these philo-Semite Nietzschean apprentice sorcerers have underestimated the potency of republican and working classes' traditions in Europe, and perhaps also in the US. They might be in for a rough awakening : History will tell.
As opposed to this deleterious recent Western trend, I do not see any antithetical opposition between the above mentioned search for an efficient and fully socialist democracy on the one hand, and Islam's best thoughts and civilizational contributions on the other. However, both must be duly abstracted from the Censitarian and now philo-Semite Nietzschean current Western versions. True democracy, like universal Human Rights and Enlightenment, remains a collective World endeavor. It is one which demands the contribution of every individual and of every single civilization, exclusive to none. Contrary to the venal and self-elected propagandists of ''regime change'', it remains a work in progress. No country, no continent can yet claim superiority or monopoly over it.
As always with human actions and systems, contradictions are the ways of life. Hence, every system has to see itself as a flexible process, capable to serve the great majority of its members without suffocating its minorities. Often difficult questions arise around the problematic of freedom of mores simply because, until recently, these were codified by archaically interpreted Traditions for the benefit of the majority. When this is the case, repression and various forms of excommunication and ostracism become the lot of the minorities. The modern world should take its declarations of Human Rights seriously. It must shed these repressive models : Instead, it must intelligently seek to develop the necessary socio-economic, cultural and civilization mediations, which can preserve both individual ''freedom spaces'' and social stability. Fatally, this is tied up with social redistribution and with the individual's and household's ( as opposed to a mere nuclear family ) sense of socio-economic independence. For instance, I tried to deal with this issue in generic terms in the second part of my Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme, whereas the third part of my book Keynesianism, Marxism, Economic Stability and Growth makes the argument in favor of laicity, gender parity and the general reduction of the working week. This reduction is needed to allow for the sharing of socially available work among the available labor force. My third book addressed the specific context of Italy, which otherwise would seem hopeless. But the demonstration can easily be generalized to all capitalist and developing countries. ( The Italian situation is much degraded since I wrote my book : Suffice it to mention here that through the monstrous manipulation of the CDS over sovereign debt by private and stateless banks and rating agencies, more than 70% of the Italian public debt is now controlled outside the country : This implies a snowballing speculative effect, which will further accelerate capital outflows and will thus quickly strangulate any possible domestic economic development, at least in the absence of radical changes. Many European countries, and a fortiori most developing countries linked to free-trade agreements with the USA and the EU, are now corseted in the same new speculative dependency paradigm ... )
Efficient socio-economic, cultural and civilization mediations are necessary to maintain a demo-cratic society composed of equal citizens. Aside from these great systemic mediations, others should be imagined according to circumstances : I have argued that Marxists and Progressives of all stripes must critically revisit, albeit in their own terms, the contribution made along these lines by Veblen. He was mainly concerned with the evolutionary maintaining of the legitimacy of formal bourgeois representative democracy, in a very highly unequal and acquisitively minded society, squarely based on private property and on the unreal mystic of the self-made man : He was therefore mainly interested in the socio-economic and cultural gimmicks that could attract the middle classes, through the microscopic manipulation of their induced acquisitive minds, and of their taught tendency to compare themselves, in a most primitive Social Darwinist fashion, to their neighbors, much more than to their bosses and ( class )distant exploiters. In short, he was striving to maintain the material conditions of existence of the so-called middle classes deemed necessary to preserve the system, as Bernstein, Weber and many others had tried to argue against Marx and Lenin ( only to be tragically proven wrong by the Great Depression and by the rise of Fascism. ) After the Second World War and the Yalta accord - Nato pushed this practice one step further, for instance in Italy. There, a newly created and Vatican-approved Christian Democratic Party inscribed on its banners the ''Libertas'' of traditional and clerically-dominated communes. This was done in direct opposition to the fundamental freedoms, won in a recent referendum, by the new Italian Republic, and enshrined in its most advanced Constitution born out of the Resistance. Of course, after the Nato-induced and undemocratic expelling of the main Resistance party, the PCI, from the Italian government in 1947. Other demagogic measures were adopted in imitation of Fleet Street and of its North American zealot Puritan and biblical imitators; this went hand in hand with the peddling of soft porn by all mass media. At the time this was specifically and perversely targeted to attract the guilt-induced Catholic and mainly agrarian Italian electorate towards the right of the political spectrum. The cooptation of the Mafia initiated by the US Army with Lucky Luciano to ''help'' with the invasion in Sicily together with the rehabilitation of many aspects of the Rocco system, the Fascist judicial code, further perfected this characteristic ''freedom'' of ruffians and subservient Nato stooges. ( Already in his Republic, Plato had explained that even gangsters need to respect some rules of justice, at least among themselves ... )
Of course, there is a clear, albeit sometime seemingly tenuous, line of demarcation between art and erotism on the one hand, and pornography on the other. The difference is usually made instinctively by the masses, much less so, although in culturally belabored perverse fashion, by venal and opportunistic puritan censors. This is particularly true of their public posturing. There is no need here to recall the best of Pasolini's works, for instance his rehabilitation of Chaucer's and Boccacio's rendering of popular wisdom in safeguarding private spaces of freedom ( What was perhaps missed was Petrarch's often calculated masochism, though he remained Boccacio's friend. In his movie Salò, Pasolini certainly did not miss the Nazi-fascist moral of a-morality. )
Berlusconi naturally played along the same porn-partition with his TVs and mass media. Admittedly, he typically did it with characteristic vulgarity and mafia-like arrogance, especially in his demagogic attack of honest judges as ''communists'' ( a conduct only possible because of the corruption and thus vulnerability of a good part of the magistrates, not to speak of tangential Parliamentarians, to which must be added the inefficiency and chronic under-financing of all main Republican instances in a country which, incredibly, has more US military bases than constituted regions ... ) But Berlusconi is not an exception, except for his characteristic parvenu theatrics and vulgarity. We all know about Fleet Street and its favorite subjects, along with some historical and recent paleferniers. More generally, in the 60's and 70's, the television and movie ads from Coca Cola, foreshadowing the more recent video-clip craze, closely catered to a young crowd already worked out by Hoovers FBI ( i.e. with its vicious peddling of drugs and LSD, a strategy that was also used, Hoffa-like together with the Hell's Angels, to compromise and finally to get rid of the most advanced militants, in primis those belonging to the student movement in Berkeley during the late 50's and early 60's. I guess the assassination of John Lennon, author of disturbing songs such as ''Working Class Hero'' or ''Imagine'', was the logical climax of this direct and diffuse strategy of mass control. ) These carefully manufactured and targeted ads were emblematic of this consumerist pseudo-joie de vivre ( So-much for excommunicated Spinoza! Instead of emancipatory Spinozian ''joy'', they had to do with primeval automatism and post-Henry James's pseudo-flow of consciousness, served, in Warhol-type Thanatosian series, by the likes of Ginsburg et al., together with the holy ( Egyptian ) beetle of Burroughs and other such exotic appetizers : Inevitably, they were soon speaking for the wrong end, but already playing their albeit covert ''regime change'' partition, sometime narratively hanging from New York skyscrapers roofs ... for ''drama'' or ''pranks'', you know ... The honest believers among them, the wide-eyed progeniture of ''stiff'' blue collars or of square military personnel, or all those generally coming from the wrong side of the track, were routinely ''busted'' by the police and judicial establishment, as soon as they were deemed to pose a threat to the dominant system of legitimization. The rest felt instinctively vulnerable and ready to cowardly cope. Doped by drugs and capitalist consumerism, the ''unidimentional'' Man and Woman as flower kid was to be produced in identical series, along with the prêt-à-porter seasonal gears. But they could not be allowed to think with their own head, least of all to speak their heart and mind aloud. Normalized alienation and coping out was thus internalized at all levels, with the usual pseudo-democratic denials, and more than a zest of Aquarius pseudo-astrological paraphernalia. )
Demographics matters. Very concretely, Islamic societies are mainly young but artificially poor societies, except for few petro-monarchies. These were the result of a colonial long-term strategy that aimed to partition Islamic population away from oil resources, thus making the oil-rich countries perpetually vulnerable and constantly seeking protection from their Western masters. Iran and Iraq were exceptions to this rule. Indeed, this explains why they quickly became the focus of English, French and later of American geostrategic ''great games''. These otherwise favorable demographics become potentially explosive when allied with under-development and with poor redistributive policies. Hence, the strategic need for socialist Islamic democracy and, above all, for intelligent socio-cultural mediations, which would prove capable to arbitrate the aspiration of the various age cohorts, offering them a future to strive for. Aside from that, youth must be allowed to behave as youth, or else they will feel betrayed and, in reality, the whole society will be betrayed through them. Yet, this cannot mean a sheepish emulation of Western models as peddled by television and bourgeois culture. In any case, these mediatic illusory projections are not even within the reach of the overwhelming majority of Western youth. The dire fate of the Western banlieue is here emblematic. The materialization of intelligent and culturally powerful mediations are necessary, in the sense that they can lead to real individual and collective emancipation, without mutilating the various ''moments'' of actual life, its ''vécu''. But they must emerge from each national socio-economic and cultural context. If one were to allow for some unavoidable materialism ( preferably ''private possession'' instead of ''private property'' ) this conception might readily fit with the best aspirations of Sufism and Islamic best instincts. Or, for that matter, as far as I can understand it, with a modern rendering of Ibn Khaldun's historical-sociology.
As for the most difficult societal issues, one does not see that they are more easily dealt with in the West, if only one cares to scratch beneath the surface. That being said, it does make a crucial difference whether or not the legal framework protects individual life-choices. Otherwise, the risk it to fall perversely prey to mob instincts, particularly when the ''mobs'' are demagogically manipulated. ( See, for instance, my early articles Lit du neo-nazisme and its Annexe in the Racism/Fascism/Exclusivism section of my site http ://la-commune-paraclet.com ) Be it as it may, each society advances at its own rhythm; however, we know that it is much easier to enshrine these types of advances into laws when the society is more prosperous. That is to say when the redistribution policies are more efficient, and when both individuals and households ( i.e. units living under the same roof ) do feel more secure and independent. ( For instance, just after the Second World War in Western societies, family allowances were generalized to compensate for the obvious inequity, systematically produced by the sheer fact that individual capitalist salaries were more or less equal for the same kind of work, despite the obvious difference in sizes of the various household units. Large families became poverty trap, particularly for the mother. Perhaps as a compensation for the fact that women were sent back to their home, and replaced on the job front by the demobilized and potentially dangerous ''boys'', the family allowance cheques were mailed directly to women, thus preserving a modicum of socio-economic independence, at least before meaningful employment for women became available again. Later, daycare centres and maternity leaves followed suite but were never really make public and universally accessible. In truth, this entailed a carefully devised political calculation, given that the easily recognizable cheques send to the families by the government would fatally enhance the electoral chances of the b was always propelled by the same powerful logic, according to which real productivity gains must be shared if the society is to remain democratic, sane and socio-economically viable. One might want to check the Note *, Note **, and Note 15 on John Galbraith in my Book III to quickly clarify the issue. Suffice it here to say that, in all Western countries during the last quarter of century, real productivity increased year after year; yet, this secular increase went entirely to capital rather than to the workers. It did so to the tune of 10 % of GDP at a minimum : I have argued in my articles and books see http ://la-commune-paraclet.com - that there would be no financing problem whatsoever for universal public health-care ( including the socialization of drug plans or public pharmacare ), universal public pension system and universal education and childcare systems, if only 2 % of these 10 % of GDP were yearly taken back. If this were to be conjugated with the policy of work-sharing ( 32-hour legal working week ) the multiplying effect would indeed create great prosperity ... at least if ''credit without collateral'' i.e. speculative stateless finance were strictly reigned in, or even prohibited altogether, something which is fortunately still partly true for Islamic countries. One might equally want to check, in my articles and books, my demonstration concerned with the crucial socio-economic, accounting and statistical importance of the three forms of revenue accruing to the households. These are individual capitalist wage or working salary; '' differed salary '' ( namely the payroll contributions levied to collectively sustain equitable public pension funds, unemployment insurance schemes and the likes ), and the ''global net revenue'' of the household ( which can comprise the first two, plus the money transfers to households in the form of benefits derived from universally accessible and collectively financed social services. ) Note that such a system, together with the aforementioned work-sharing strategy, would sustain both internal demand and the State fiscal basis, at the various levels of government. Needless to say, this sheer fact runs counter to the Right-wing public policy agenda, and to its artificially created fiscal quagmire. In reality, this fiscal crisis is mainly due to the neoliberals own regressive Reaganian-Friedmanite ''flat tax'' paradigm, and to their substitution of precarious workfare for full-employment and Welfare policy : Of course, workfare too is a form of labor-sharing, but it typically is intended to share poverty among the working classes. US and Western workers are now often forced to take two jobs just to make ends meet. Furthermore, these workers are now paid at such a low level that they need to be exempted from income taxes, as well as from most contributory public social services, lest their net pay would not even ensure their bare survival! In the process, they automatically lose the social safety net included in the global net revenue described above. Yet, it is argued ( ! ) that without these deadly exemptions, « labor costs » would be deemed too high in a free-trade world dominated by the globalization of the grotesque ''function of production'' of Solow-Friedman :Thanks to it, workers must compete against each other on a worldwide basis, while the xenophobic restriction of emigration flows, complete with murderous Security Fences, neatly completes the mastery afforded to transnational capital by it sheer short-term, electronic mobility. ( On Solow-Friedman see my Synthesis as well as my draft Hi-Ha! The bourgeois economist's donkish visual hallucinations in the Books section of this site ) In a philo-Semite Nietzschean « return » to the Repeal of the Corn Laws, once advocated by Ricardo-Rothschild to lower the cost of the food basket destined to the average British workers thus ruining at the same time any pretense to food and agricultural sovereignty the same dominant neoliberal economists have imagined to back-up their free-trade agenda with what I have called a b delocalization and the outsourcing of entire manufacturing sectors; simultaneously, the US became a net importer of foodstuffs. At the other end of the spectrum, the first decile and even more grotesquely the top 1% of the population accumulate social wealth as never before, together with obscene bonuses and stock options, just to re-invest this easy money into speculative non-productive and crisis-producing gimmicks ( This trend was already clear in the early 80's as demonstrated in my Les conséquences socio-économiques of MM. Volcker, Reagan and Cie of March 1985. )
The implementation of this voodoo fiscal policy has demonstrably ruined the United States and all OECD countries with it, during the last three decades ... Note that this policy choice equally runs counter to the pseudo-Marxist ''fiscal policy of the State''. Proposals. This can be verified for instance in O'Connor's paradigmatically schizophrenic book ( The fiscal crisis of the State. ) In this book, one part deals with competitive markets and the other with monopolistic markets i.e. mainly State enterprises destined to be deregulated and privatized. This is done while the crucial importance of real productivity increases, naturally provoked by the laws of motion of capitalism - to wit concentration and centralization of capital -, hence the crucial importance of the sharing of socially available work, together with its beneficial fiscal consequences, remains a carefully cultivated and reactionary blind spot. The same blindness characterizes the demagogic mystic of small enterprises as great generator of ''jobs'', whereas, in their overwhelming majority, these small businesses merely live off the externalization and outsourcing of the big private or State-owned enterprises. This neoliberal trend is propelled by the political need to get rid of public and other unions in order to structurally lower all salaries ( i.e. the so-called flexibility of the labor market. ) Note that 2/3 of all new small and medium enterprises die in their first three years of existence; see my Tous ensemble. Meanwhile, tax expenditures, which routinely amount to some 6% to 10 % of GDP of Western States, further ruin the public's coffers, and prove far more costly than any wall-to-wall generalized financing of the working-week reduction one can think of, even when supplemented by residual State subventions to needy firms. Jargon aside, small wonder that a O'Connor is, in practice, very close to the ''reversed'' rendering of the deeply pessimistic theory proposed by Schumpeter. This theory came to be heralded as ''creative destruction'' after its fallacious reinterpretation by the various adepts of von Hayek and many other ''eccentrics'' ( von Mises's apt characterization ) such as Milton Friedman ... Well, you know about most academic pseudo-Marxists ... or should we say Marxologists? ) The sharing of poverty among the working classes only produces poverty, but it also ruins social services and State fiscal capacity. It further generalizes suicidal labor precariousness and workfare trends, particularly amongst the 15-30, 55-65 and women cohorts. The enduring sociological networks of Islam are antithetical to this neoliberal acquisitive and egoistic mentality. And this turns out to be a great civilization asset and a good omen for the future.
We have underlined the Muslin, particularly Arabic, découpage into States aimed at segregating great oil-resources from great population basins ( a powerful argument originally made by General Gallois, as far as I know. ) To this, must be included the British, Vatican and early Zionist ( i.e. Balfour etc ) policy aimed at dismembering the so-called Sick Man of Europe, namely the Ottoman empire. This was deemed essential in order to secure the Suez Canal and the rapid access to India and the East, instead of having to endure the long circumnavigation of Africa. This led to the artificial creation of a special brand of Arabic nationalism. It was in part illustrated by Lawrence of Arabia's Seven pillars of wisdom, which focused on the creation of small and subservient petro-monarchies ( the French were helping in the process, as clearly exemplified by the Sykes-Picot Accord, as well as by the policy practiced in the Maghreb, notably in Morocco. In his illuminating but masked book, pay attention to Lawrence of Arabia's underground professional willingness to fit in at the very beginning of his mission, headgear, dress and all, as exemplified by his taste for the shared cup of coffee : A bittersweet bottom line enthusiasm which apparently was crushed in Turkey ... ) At their creation, these small, vulnerable petro-monarchies were conceived as the most conservative and reactionary bulwark in the whole Arabic and indeed via the Saudi control of Mecca in the whole Muslim world. Not surprisingly, the most reactionary anti-republican forms of Islamic feudalisms, together with their instinctive diplomatic betrayal of progressive Muslim trends and movements, are constantly nurtured within these subservient petro-monarchies. It is easy to show that, in reaction to the Mahdi rebellion, Wahabism was mainly created to support the reactionary and subservient Saudi House, with a very peculiar, reactionary and monarchical reinterpretation of Islam. These reactionary pseudo-Islamic societies, embodied by Saudi Arabia and by the Arabic Gulf States, are quick to imitate Israeli segregationist policies in many respects, but mainly as far as the treatment of immigration is concerned : Their own popular basis is that insecure that they would not survive very long without such a monstrous and anti-modern segregation policy. This is a sure sign that they cannot last. But their power of nuisance for all their neighbors is proportional to their subservience to their philo-Semite Nietzschean foreign imperial masters.
In a truly internationalist perspective one would of course make a clear distinction between a reactive fundamentalism, opposed to imperialist and Zionist domination, and a reactionary fundamentalism consciously played out in an Islamic reinterpretation of Burke, Nietzsche and others of that same ilk. The first form is compatible with republican equality and can evolve toward increasingly egalitarian practices, as circumstances permit. The other is ontologically antithetical to equality, to the point that it will collaborate with the worse imperialist and Zionist forces, in order to devastate any Islamic inroads toward republican and socialist-secular modernity. Their constant betrayal of the Palestinian cause is emblematic of this stand. The role played by Kuwait alongside the US ( Rumsfled, Ambassador April Glaspie, etc ), when the later decided to destroy Iraq, is quickly summarized in my second book Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme. ( see ''Détruire la Russie pour dominer le monde musulman'' ) Unless, the Muslims comprehend it, this scenario which consists in playing one Muslim country against another, to better serve one's own imperialist interest, is bound to replay itself : As explained in the section mentioned above, the Iraq-Kuwait affair embodies the tragic epilogue to Saddam's strategic mistake in believing that he could fight Iran as a proxy for the USA. In so doing, Saddam hoped to gain access to nuclear power and other modern armament, instead of counting on his own forces, and striving to establish a great cooperative economic zone within the space that had previously been the Ottoman empire, and beyond to the Maghreb.
This would be a mutually beneficial economic zone, abstracted from the current and devastating free-trade imperialist agenda. It would be one that would finally reunite and unleash the potential synergies to be expected once you unite great oil and population resources. Needless to say, such an economic zone, betting on the future rather than dogmatically arching back on the past, would be based on the prior recognition by all of the inviolability of present borders. Aside from Israel's occupation lines, any residual border dispute should be entrusted to peaceful and legal means of conflict resolution. This new regional order should include a regional control of armament regime. It would be backed with intrusive mutual inspections, capable to ensure proper deterrence for all the member States concerned, with or without Israeli denuclearization. As for this latter aspect, if Israel maintains its nuclear war-heads ( 300 or so ), then there is obviously no good reason to invoke a denuclearization of the whole region, to the exclusion of the still illegal State of Israel. Nor would there be any good reason to recognize, in the short or long term, any so-called ''faits accomplis'', especially those sought by Zionists and Imperialists alike after June 1967 : After all, the law is the same for all, or it simply ceases to exist. It is not sure that brute force is in the long term advantage of the deeply assisted and dependent Israeli State ( In truth, this is a miserable Croupion and crassly non-egalitarian speudo-State, which survives off more than 6 billion in direct annual aid, freely lavished on it, in almost equal shares, by the US and the EU, to which must be added free-trade access, scientific cooperation and huge military transfers. ) The fact is that if this foreign aid were to stop, the UN would soon have to spend some spare money to recycle the old and rapidly obsolete nukes and power plants, which the illegal Lilliputian Israeli State thinks to possess to the end of time, without even having the wherewithal to maintain it properly on its own. As we all know, without even having to resort to Toynbee's simplistic yet empirically based thesis, nothing is ever perennial in history. If historical changes had favored the exclusivist dreams so far, there would obviously be no further need for theories of ''recurrent return'', nor for their critiques denouncing them as the work of dangerous pitres. Neither the fitting ending of syphilitic Nietzsche, tragically and ''pitifully'' suspended on the neck of the wounded horse, nor Hitler's self-immolation to avoid falling into the hands of the Red Army, seem to be strong enough to convince the heirs of the old teachers of modern fascism to change their suicidal exclusivist tune. ( You may want to check on www.wikipedia.org the following : Margherita Sarfatti, Houston Chamberlain, Alfred Rosenberg and Ernst Hanfstaengl, the teacher of good manners Harvard sent to Hitler, while the US Administration was financing the Dawes Plan and its avatars, in order to illegally help Germany rearm as a buffer zone against the young USSR. Among many other such ''personalities'', of course, because unfortunately examples such as these do no lack, even if you exclude those who recycled themselves as democrats while actively embarking the previously saved SS officers in the new Cold War. We will spare you the Israeli-Jewish rehabilitation of the Nazi industrialist Schindler and his Jewish accountant Stern : The criminal Nazi-slave exploiter Schindler is now deemed to be a Just among the Nations ( read : of Gentiles ... ) while communist partisans, who gave their lives to fight Nazifascism are currently portrayed as being worse than the Nazis, you know ... To which I have replied, as a prominent authentic Marxist and as a born citizen : If so, the next time without Stalin! You already surely know about Jabotinsky and about the Nazi-Zionist Abba Haimeir, the pitric herald of the ''anti-communist pulp'' strategy, up until 1938 like the rest of them and even after ( Indeed, we are not dealing here with small subaltern peripheric fries like the Mufti of Jerusalem ... ) Similarly, you had a warmongering and electorally defeated Churchill announcing the erection of an bIron Curtain in the German Western Zone of Occupation without consulting with the Allies, neither the UK, nor France, nor the USSR : this provocation marking the first deliberate act of the Cold War ( Stalin will gain possession of the nuclear bomb only three years later in 1949. ) On the other side of this great divide, but working along the same occult lines, you had the Jewish criminal midget Yeshov. Aside from Baltic Zionist Rabbis and the Kaiser's Master spy, the Jewish financier Max Warburg, his true master was the Marquis de Sade, who had infiltrated the Section des Piques after 1789 to better discredit it and turn the Revolution into a terror machine eating up its revolutionary sons. Before the onset of the Second World War, Yeshov treacherously succeeded in beheading the Communist Party of the Soviet Union luckily mostly his old bourgeois-trained cadres. However, the newly trained officers of the Red Army were fortunately off his reach and ready to follow in the tracks of the brilliant and heroic first Superior Officer of the Red Army, Comrade Vorochilov. Yeshov crapulous crimes were latter conveniently assigned by the pro-Zionist Ussr, and by Jews all over the world, to Stalin, their sole savior up until Stalingrad in 1943. But the incorrigible Judeophile but ''Gentile'' Stalin had read Marx's Jewish question and understood it even better than Trotsky : Small wonder he was politically assassinated by the Jewish Doctors Plot with the help of Beria in 1953. The trade-off of this occult ''regime change'' was the US support for Beria, Molotov and Cie in exchange for the secession of European East bloc. The Zionist-led Hungarian counter-revolution of 1956 naturally followed this first defeated attempt. This initial betrayal was thwarted in particular with the help of Jukhov, but only to send the USSR into the pro-Zionist and capitalist-roaders' hands of Liberman, through Khrushchev. ( The same is now happening in Cuba at the hands of Raul Castro-Yespin, with the interested stimulation of the Jew Davalos Hart and his clique : Something the Alba and the Non-Aligned Countries should be aware off. For detail see the Cuban section in this site. Great oil reserves were recently discovered in the Cuban Northern Basin, does one need to add more? ) Eventually, the imperialists had to wait for Gorbatchev ( and his Malta conference with Bush Jr. ) and for Yeltsin to win this historic battle. However, winning a battle does not win the war. Yet, the historical lesson is clear. At a minimum, Muslim understanding of the internationalist aspirations of real communism must make the difference between authentic Marxist thought on the one hand, and its occult vilification by the pro-Zionist Soviet over-represented representatives on the other. This over-represented mass quickly turned out to be the worse renegades after 1991, shamelessly using their old Party connections to privately usurp and monopolize the collective wealth of the people. And in so doing, they also backed the West in manipulating the so-called ''national question'' in the Caucasus, typically implementing the ''reverse'' of Stalin's Marxist carefully thought out multinational and socialist policies, in order to dismember the Soviet Federation! But Muslims, as well as Pakistanis for that matter, already know full well what to think about the generous Israeli-American and Saudi help, so emblematically comforted by so many Western pitres qua ''Nouveaux philosophes''! For instance, one must question the real reason why these pseudo-Soviet representatives withdrew the Sam missiles batteries when the Egyptian forces were close to defeating Israel in 1973, thus giving the latter the upper hand. This soon enticed the Egyptian leadership to reverse its alliance in favor of the US, in exchange ( ! ) of the Camp David and Al Taba accords. Before the first Gulf War the French had likewise given to the US Army the plan of the Osirak nuclear site they were ''helping' to build in the secular Republic of Iraq, as well as the electronic codes of the deadly Exocet missiles which suddenly turned out to be as harmful as kids' toys ... History repeats itself as a farce they say : hence today we have Medvedev, a former Jew converted to Orthodoxy, within the Russian Presidency. Russian missiles, previously sold to Iran to protect the Russian-built civilian nuclear plan, are now calculatedly not delivered ... Such policies are enforced notwithstanding the fact that Iran represents the most beneficial commercial route, as well as the most obvious access point to warm waters now available to the Federation of Russia! Apparently cast interests predominate national interest, ''once again''. )
To stand on its own feet the Muslim world must therefore strive for the creation of a mutually-beneficial regional space. To this regional diplomatic offensive must be added a principled defense of the UN Charter along the lines laid out in my Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme. This is because the UN Charter, together with the UN Universal Declaration of Rights, and with all international laws compatible with them, does constitute the best fruit born out of the anti-Nazifascist alliance. These two founding international texts preventively condemn all present and future exclusivist warmongering trends. This includes the condemnation of philo-Semite Nietzschean and Right-wing fascistic Zionism, with its ''masters of the world'' arrogant pretension to replace the architecture of the post-WWII UN System, with one dominated by the exclusivist Leviticus and other such ''singular'' lunacies, geared toward the establishment of a purported Judeo-Christian World Apartheid. ( Whatever this Judeo-Christian term might mean if one thinks of Christs gospel, even abstracting from the Christian deicide denunciations and narratives, and from the endless rabbinical obsession to perennially do the ''reverse'' of any egalitarian proposal ... )
This would be a World Exclusivist Apartheid, complete with its ''separation'' doctrine ( see Finkielkraut, Yossef and too many others ... ) And with their recurrent ''return'' to self-built enclosures, walls and ghettos. This then implies the respect for the UN non-meddling clause, as well as the repudiation of violence as a means to solve international conflict. It implies the respect for equality among all States as provided by the General Assembly, strengthened by the so-called, though conveniently forgotten, Acheson Resolution. This interstate equality implies the respect for the UN Charter in other areas as well : For instance, when it calls for the creation of a UN Chief of Staff directly subordinated to the Security Council, as opposed to a UN Security Council now illegally transformed into a legitimizing branch-plant Head Quarter for a crusading Nato. Or, when it calls for the establishment of an interstate egalitarian UN Social and Economic Council. We should stress again that the UN Social and Economic Council at its origin was thought to become the main peace-fostering body of the UN, even before the UNESCO, as opposed to the more military and political Security Council. Everybody knows how it was partly buried by the warmongering Marshall Plan of the Atlantic Alliance that turned Western Europe into a dependent market for American surplus goods, while consolidating it against the Soviet Union and against the important communist political movements particularly in Greece, France and in Italy. Hence, the logic of peaceful reconstruction and development was subverted; it should quickly be retrieved, Alba-like, as an urgent alternative to the Empire. In this UN framework, Republican Islamic societies would evolve more freely and rapidly; they would be able to establish harmonious non-meddling relations with all other peace-loving States. They would do so without being always on the defensive, and thus be constantly forced to revise their own socio-cultural priorities according to this externally imposed state of affairs. Be it as it may, here too the direction is more important than the velocity. But feeling secure with the direction taken implies total trust, notably in the preventive purge of all renegade hints of ''false representation'' at the hand of the usual lower clergies, servi in camera and other such pitres. If I do not mistake, this is the stand wisely practiced by the Non-Aligned Countries, ever since the fall of the USSR and the collapse of the essentially bipolar world.
Non-Islamic progressive people and all individuals of good will need to do their share too. Otherwise, they will fatally and shamefully emulate the collaborators with the Zionist-Imperialist Occupying forces in what remains of the old acculturated bmmunist'' party of Iraq ... These people should perhaps revisit Vercors on the concept of ''animaux re-naturés''. The Lebanese Communist Party has proven more advanced, at least in its unwavering support for the Lebanese Resistance. Clearly, within the Muslim World, in-born authentic communism is still an urgent project to be thought out and carried forward. The post-USSR new Marxist internationalism must be principled and flexible : It needs to defend the international civilisational conquests embodied in the UN Charter first, thus preserving a plurality of State models far from any external meddling : The worldwide generalization of the neoliberal imperial model only serves the putative philo-Semite Nietzschean ''masters of the world''. Thus, in that specific UN framework, it must peacefully strive for greater emancipation. In so doing, it must further take due account of ''Marxist psychoanalysis'' ( see part two of my Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme ), especially when it pretends to speak of secularism ( laicity ) and of occidentalo-centrist modernization : At the very least, this should be arrived at from within, or else we will constantly be faced with what might be called a ''truncated dialectic''. This naturally has the paradoxical potential to feed regression and inequality in their most regressive fundamentalist forms : To evolve individuals and peoples alike must first be allowed to think with their own heads.
In this respect, the overwhelming lesson of the Twenties Century is that the Imperialist West will never hesitate to ally itself with the most reactionary regimes, as long as they are subordinated to it. Remember the Realist Palmerstone's diplomatic motto, according to which the UK had neither friends, nor permanent enemies, only permanent interests. This Machiavellian Western posture turns out to be particularly true with regard to the Muslim world, the mystifying veil over this truth having been partially teared down, for the whole modern world to see, by the current Zionist dominance over Western Masonic lodges, a trend obvious since Nietzsche came to be seen as a most ''useful idiot'' and as a fitting Grand Master for naive Gentiles etc. ( Note that even ''after Auschwitz'', Jews and Israelis alike did not shy away from collaborating with the most perverse and dictatorial regimes on Earth, from the nuclear-savvy Apartheid regime of South Africa to Pinochet's Chili etc …As for the US, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, etc the story is better known. ) Thus it is not only the Palestinians, or Mossadegh who were seen as the ''enemy'', but all those who might refuse to subordinate themselves to the putative Empire : Because of the Soviet Union's influence, the established secular Muslim regimes were sacrificed first : The Algerian FLN had to endure an overt and covert war ( especially after it showed signs of aligning itself with the Tricontinental and Che Guevara. ) After the nationalization of the Suez Canal, Nasser was called the ''little Hitler of the Nile'' by the Zionists highly placed within the UK and French governments. Saddam Hussein was instrumentalized against Iran and soon sacrificed. Afghanistan was forcefully thrown centuries backward by the Holy Alliance between Israel, the US and Saudi Arabia, all Machiavellically manipulating Pakistan's wish for a strong strategic hinterland buffer zone ... in a replay of a so-called ''Great Game'' in Central Asia. Etc. Similarly, the artificially created paranoia about the ''veil'' in the West is but a shameful manipulation by Zionists, now grotesquely and unnaturally dominant within Western Masonic lodges, as documented in France ( see my book III : To go faster use the ''search'' function with the keyword ''bauer'', etc ... ) The new internationalists need to take this Machiavellian propensity of the neo philo-Semite Nietzscheans into account, in order to build and consolidate the resistance front needed to oppose this putative and already half-destroyed and ontologically contradictory Judeo-Christian ( ! ) empire. We must be clear headed, flexible and determined at the same time
The third choice is not a matter of rhetoric but of dialectic. Starting from present reality the objective would be to devise a strategy capable to positively resolve the contradiction between both Western and Islamic fundamentalisms. I have called this path Arabic or Islamic socialism, in direct contradistinction with Arabic and Islamic Zionism. Contrary to what the usual clichés say about the lack of affinity between Islam and socialism, the fact is that both share a very strong believe in the fundamental equality and dignity of all human beings. This fact was obscured by various factors. Notable among these were the modern power struggle over the riches of the Middle East and Central Asia. Thus, pushed by Rockefeller and his allies, we saw the US struggling against the British and aligning themselves with the Wahhabits of Saudi Arabia during the early XXth Century. This alliance remained strong, even after the creation of Israel. In fact, the permanent realignment of the American diplomacy in the region in favor of Israel started after the Bandung Conference and the global acclamation it afforded to Nasser as the hero of the Non-Aligned Movement. This Muslim republican revival had been announced by the short but emblematic regime of Mossadegh in Iran. The arrival of President Nasser on the scene transformed the whole Mideast and Central Asia into a contested terrain where the cardinal rule of bipolarity, and containment, was quickly transmuted into a rolling-back strategy played out by both sides, the price of this so-called great game being the control of the Southern flank of Eurasia. Already then, this strategy was equally aimed at dividing and controlling India while maintaining Pakistan and its strategic hinterland under tight control. The withdrawal of the Soviets from Afghanistan and the collapse of the USSR mark the last chapter of this long cycle.
The current invasion of Afghanistan by the Judeo-Fascist imperialistic forces opens the next one. Huntington's ''clash of civilizations'', as enshrined into G.W. Bush/Rumsfled/Perle/Wolfowitz's et al. doctrine of preventive wars, was wagged to install the Universal Judeo-Fascist Empire ushered by the conquest of Eretz Israel, and by the projected rebuilding of the illegitimate Solomon temple as the main hub of ''authorized communication flows''. This now constitutes the inescapable new political and international paradigm, that of the putative Empire of the self-proclaimed ''masters of the Earth''. After Le Bon, Nietzsche, Sarfatti and too many of their lingering, if masked and dangerous disciples particularly Italian intellectual midgets , these new grotesques apologists of the Empire ( viz Antonio Negri, Giorgio Agamben et al. ) like, or rather dare, to present the sovereign people as dispossessed bat forcefully aims at the establishment of a ''voluntary servitude'', to be reached through a Nietzschean dictatorship of obscurantism and mediocrity. It would be one much worse than the relatively benign version of the Great Inquisitor of Dostoyevsky, the direct inspiration of Orwell ( This is clearly exemplified by the archaic and pathological minds of war criminals like Sharon, Sharansky, Netanyahu, Eitam et al. and their accomplices like Shimon Peres who obviously never deserved his Noble Prize. )
As I have said earlier, this Judeo-Fascist paradigm breeds two complementary fundamentalisms, the right-wing Zionist and right-wing Islamic fundamentalisms. Both however are necessarily rejected by the most Enlightened forces on both sides. Right-wing Zionism, in fact, constitutes a greater civilizational regression for all secular, free and tolerant Western societies, including Jewish secular society, than it does for developing Muslim society. It naturally breeds racism and discrimination on a philo-Semite Nietzschean basis. This can easily be witnessed by the absurd and counter-productive over-representation of Jews in all dominant circles of present day Western society, especially within the universities, the liberal professions and the financial circles. Meritocracy is now over-determined by the blind acceptance of the domination of the credo spun by right-wing Zionism, including its odious anti-UN and anti-international law stands : In short, it is a religiously and racially over-determined Nietzschean ''meritocracy'' ( The effect of which can be observed in the deeply assisted Israeli society, a dependent society which could not survive a few months on its own, if the West were to cut the $ 6 billion in annual direct aid coming from both the USA and the EU, despite rising internal unemployment rates and increasing mass poverty. These grotesque foreign aid amounts, with the proportional chutzpah they naturally spin, pale in comparison to the even higher military and technical assistance lavished on the theocratic and racially exclusivist anti-State of Israel. Israel routinely and illegally uses its access to Western intelligence sources as a mean to routinely steal information and concepts it could never easily access otherwise. I do not believe that anyone will have the chutzpah to question my assertion of this fact. This equally begs the question of the role of this repugnant infiltration in assisting Israeli and right-wing Jewish political murderers, albeit this becomes an accusation more directly addressed to the Western or to other governments that chose to behave as coward accomplices. In so doing, they fail in their most basic sovereign and constitutional duty to protect and to avenge the rights of their own citizens; and yet, these citizens could understandably feel more akin to Suetonius's idea of citizenship than to a crassly alien description of citizens as second-hand bs sheer effect is to encourage bullying and pathological murderers. If law is not reasserted quickly, it will necessarily lead to a transnational pro-active Citizens Protection League. )
This state of affair naturally breeds cultural and religious obscurantism through a right-wing Zionist control of the mass-media, which sees its mission as the re-actualization of Manus recipes directed to the lower classes, as reformulated by Nietzsche ( see, for instance, Murdock, Black, Barbara Amiel, who, as we all know, was educated at the Toronto Suns school but never quite made it to its important pages despite all her best efforts, Bronfman's father and sons of booze fame, and many others, are patent and pathetic illustrations ( 1 ) : They even managed to bring Fleet Street lower than it already was in the hands of the likes of various Strathconas! In Italy, after Sarfatti's family financed and controlled behind-the-scene the pre-communist ''socialist party'' and later the Fascist party, we now have the Jew De Benedetti asserting an identical control behind-the-scene over the so-called center-left, while the right-wing of the spectrum fell under the crutches of Berlusconi and of the delirious Rabbi Pacifici ( who should humbly tell us about other Pacifici notorious linked to Mussolini's army, before pretending to preach to Italian citizens. ) In fact, in this new information regime, the lower mass media are now taking over the most serious mainstream ones. In a replay of the contradiction within the ranks of the philo-Semite Nietzschean elite, the latter are now forced to desperately try to establish an individual, if highly fallacious financial autonomy to protect their ''lower clergy'', ''servi in camera'' relative autonomy! ( Ex. Le Monde diplomatique, il manifesto etc … If your intuitive content analysis has not already awakened you to this crucial fact, just check the origin of the important determining donations with which the philo-Semite Nietzschean, post-Claude Julien, Le Monde diplomatique has been recently founded upon. As for the Italian il manifesto, intellectual charity demands that we refrain to comment; suffice it here to say that it was the home of the self-described ''non-communist'' pitres Ingrao and Rossana Rossanda, that is, typically, self-described as such only after the collapse of both the USSR and the PCI ... Before that, not surprisingly, just like Sabbatean Zevi, they pretended to be the true self-designated sultan in the place of the sultan. They even professed to be authentic Marxists, albeit anti-PCI and anti-USSR ( This was overdoing it since, at the same time, the late PCI leader the Jew Enrico Berlinguer had privately expressed his preference for Nato, while continuing to draw his salary as General Secretary and openly betraying striking workers ... I have since emphasized the fact that political ''false representation'' is a heinous crime against representative democracy. It is much worse in the intellectual-academic fields. ) Be it as it may, these people never produced anything serious that might justify their claim. You have probably noticed that authentic Marxists have no tenure and are not published, and that those who are, still laboriously ( hi-ha! ) pretend to ignore my crucial scientific demonstration loyal to Marx's : Namely, that the rate of organic composition of capital is properly written as v/C ( where C = c +v ) and that this ratio moves in proportionally revered fashion with the rate of exploitation, or pv/v. Now you know why these pitres are paid out of the public purse to play the role of academic and media Marxists. But in the process, not only do they dirty academic deontology, they equally and consciously defraud the poor students who actually pay often high tuition fees to learn something about Marxism; not to mention their betrayal of the proletariat. Please refer to my books and article for the details. )
This structural breeding of class idiocy is a natural offshoot of over-representation : Not so much because of the racial and cultural over-representation of minuscule and exclusivist minorities, but instead because this over-representation stultifies the natural richness of the potential talents, naturally present within the general population. We all know by now that the average IQ of the scientific strata is very average ( see Sola Price for the original argument. ) This is an evidence which militates powerfully in favor of generalized equality, positive discrimination and the public structuring of research and R&D, in order to concretely and collectively attain collective and individual merit as well as scientific heights. The great theoretician Louis Althusser had already made the point differently : The complexity of scientific research now necessitate team work, as much as in all other working endeavors already over-determined by the division of labor.
In the political and diplomatic realms this class idiocy wreaks havoc. This can be seen every single day by merely glancing at the Judeo-Fascists preventive and permanent wars, not the least their economic, speculative and financial preventive wars, wagged with their ''credit without collateral''. Human beings are partly natural and partly historical products, so that natural inbreeding is a mortal danger for the species as a species, whereas cultural inbreeding is a potential danger for the other members of the same species. Without the relativism healthily derived from the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Torah would soon become a sum of exclusivist Fascism, at least when enforced over the public secular domains. One can easily picture the young Spinoza running away from such cultivated sectarian irrationality. This largely explains the hatred behind the right-wing Zionist complicity during the ransacking of the Baghdad Museum, which accompanied the invasion of the Republic of Iraq. Meanwhile, in a most barbaric act, the Judeo-Fascist Occupying forces took great care to protect the Petroleum Ministry, but studiously ignored the protection of the Humanity Heritage deposited inside the Museums, Libraries and archeological Iraqi sites, even though some of us had preventively alerted the UNESCO when it became clear that the war was imminent!
A collective effort is needed to define what Islamic socialism is in theoretical and practical terms. Let me outline some elements which appear crucial to me, a neophyte reader of the Koran who can nevertheless claim a good insight in the understanding of the ''banlieues'' of capitalism ( 2 )
Equality explains the fundamental reason why Islam did spread like a brush fire within the less guarded preserve of the old Roman Empires, which were still staunchly defending slavery. They were aided in this crime by the transformation of the old egalitarian Christian ''ekklesia'' ( so-called primitive Christian communities ) into a State religion, thanks to Emperor Constantine. This proved to be a State religion only too willing to grant to ''Caesars'', and to the dominant classes, what was thought by these dominant classes to belong to themselves. This is a mere evidence. In fact, the survival of free citizens, as opposed to serfs attached to the land after the collapse of the Roman Empire, is largely due to the systemic threat exercised by the spread of Islam. As shown by the great preface by Pierre Jonin to La Chanson de Roland ( ed Gallimard, 1979 ) and confirmed by historians such as Pirenne, the reactive creation of modern racism was a geostrategic military product on the par with today's gratuitous accusation of terrorism criminally levied by exclusivist imperialist murderers on the loose. Aside from the theocratic genealogical exclusivist and racist narrative spun by the Old Testament, in the Genesis, the Book of Kings, etc, etc ... , this modern racism is mainly due to the diplomacy of the decaying Byzantine Roman Empire, which tried its best to involve Charlemagne in Spain. Of course, it did this in order to open a Western front against advancing Islam, in an attempt to preserve its own control over the Mediterranean prolongation of the Silk Road and over the African Gold Road etc… This was a prelude to the rabbinico-papist support for the Reconquista of the Iberic Peninsula, coming as it did after the Crusaders' manipulation of Prêtre Jean's Catholic Ethiopia.
Contrary to what many Medievalists have said so far, the transformation of the European Middle Ages into Renaissance and modern society is not due to the operation of merchant capital, wrongly understood as the outsider in the system. Rather it is due to the presence of this free laboring stratum, readily available to a nascent productive capital subordinated to merchant capital. For instance, Marxist historians have described the elaborate family-based piece-work system first developed around Renaissance Florence. Through this organization of production and exchange, materials such as wool were distributed to small peasant families in the countryside. The manufactured products were then acquired and exported in bulk, the local discovery of the authentic recipe for indigo dyeing providing a great stimulus to this highly beneficial endeavor. Backed by a cosmopolitan and spiritual rejection of the crusades, this civilizational rebirth had been anticipated by the First Renaissance, best exemplified by Joachim of Fiore's secularization of the Spirit, and by his essential intellectual advances. These were soon mystified by the prelude of the Counter-Reform played out long before the Council of Trent during the Council of Lateran in 1215 and later in the Commission of Anagni in 1255. These civilizational advances, later laboriously rediscovered by the Second Renaissance, through Petrarch, Boccacio, Dante, Machiavelli, Pico, Ficino, and even Giotto's Florentine Campanile etc send us back to the great debate between Al Ghazali and Ibn Rushd as already alluded to in my Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme. ( There is still a lot of work waiting to be done here - if only for good, comprehensive and trustworthy translations -, at least for all those who could easily admit that the great Doctor Summa himself was a deep reader of Al Ghazali, Ibn Sina, Rushd and many others Islamic authors. The Prophet had it right when he said : Seek knowledge even as far as China! )
The commercial and ideological confrontation between the Roman Empires and Islam produced a long and lasting proto-racist blind spot, which succeeded in obscuring this intimate dialectic between the two Mediterranean contenders. It was a dialectic that proved stronger than that which prevailed between Ancient Greece and Persia, and which eventually gave birth to Alexanders cosmopolitan universalism, as well as to the replacement of the City State and autocratic empire forms by the new feudal forms ( including the suzerainty and vassality forms later prevailing within Islam itself. ) This free segment of society represented the survival of the privileges afforded through Roman citizenship. This free status had been widely extended throughout the Empire towards its end, and had been further vivified by early Christian thought. This new trend had co-opted the old universalistic point of view of the Roman Stoic School. It was also vivified by the subterranean survival of Pythagoras's enlightened sciences, if only through Plato's rendering of the teaching of his master, Socrates. Although they tend to forget their secular roots going back to Joachim of Fiore and the First Renaissance, the mythology of the enlightened Freemasons until the French Revolution illustrates this trend without much equivocation. This is because you will always find pre-Lampedusan or Burkean elements within it ( if not lowly roués like sardonic Voltaire. ) These are always coming from variously and exclusively ''enlightened'' higher classes and circles. Thus, long after the Crusader Saint Bernard and his Templars, the spearhead of the Counter-reform, the schizophrenic Ingace de Loyala, the founder of the Jesuit order, engineered a return to blind obedience to ''authority'' and hierarchy, thus ushering a new mass servitude to visual populist symbolism, as opposed to the widening of the freedom necessarily vested with the investigating individual conscience. The Opus Dei is only the modern Fascist-Franquist version of this conscious regression away from the historical becoming of Humanity. Thus, the Freemason Sade père gave birth to the famous Marquis de Sade, the best representative of the reactionary pre-Nietzschean nobility which gave birth to the society known as Les Amis du crime. It should be underlined that the Marquis de Sade himself was a major instigator of the worst actions perpetrated during the French Terror in order to discredit it. These actions were justified as ''awakened nihilism'' ''avant la letter''. The Jewish midget Yeshov will play the same destructive role within the Soviet Union, although his crimes were conveniently imputed en bloc to comrade Stalin by the usual 5th Column which, in the end, destroyed so-called ''real-socialism'' … that is, immediately after March 1953. It should be recalled that Stalin himself had finally come to characterize Yeshov as a b
We have stressed the egalitarian aspect of the Prophet's Message. Interestingly enough, this new equality propagated by Islam extended to women. In fact, the whole matrimonial policies and family structures were re-engineered by Islam. It strove to simultaneously respect old strictures ( Hammurabi Code, the Leviticus, the Gospels, Local Traditions especially those of Medina etc ) while at the same time adopting them to the new thirst for equality and emancipation. As modern day Islamic scholars ( especially in Iran ) have rediscovered, the status of women, in the Prophet Mohameds society, can only be understood by taking into account the fragile equation between equality and marriage. In such a calculus, a widow who would remarry would not be materially inferior to her husband. The wedding ''dower'' ( as the basis of the matrimonial alliance and as the real mediation making repudiation or divorce possible ) was only a visible aspect of it. Of course, Mohameds matrimonial calculus of gender equality would quickly resolve into rules of gender equality, if only you were willing to substitute ancient matrimonial and patriarchal structures with modern nuclear families, and thus with a great variety of working conditions, going hand in hand with a great variety of ''households'', conceived as the primary cells where the reproduction of labor power takes place. In the West these rules were only painfully attained recently. The material conditions of the reproduction of the labor force necessarily reflect on the matrimonial structures, policies and actual practices. This bodes well for the internal smooth evolution of Islam in this domain, at least if it does not feel vulnerable to external destabilization, and to other kinds of imperialist meddling, such as « regime change .»
It is well known that various courtiers during the Prophet Mahomets own life succeeded in tilting the Prophets vision to make it more palatable to existing historical and power structures. Yet most of these regressions only appear in the commentaries rather than in the earlier Mohammedan texts themselves. Of course, the choice of the surahs send us back to a very precise and complex historiography to determine what was legitimately placed within the two covers of the Book, including famous problems with specific dialects. The spirit of these texts ( or surahs ) is perfectly clear; as much as their revolutionary social consequences in the field. A literal interpretation of the Prophets teaching would condemn such constraints as the Islamic veil, especially when it is used with ostentation or under societal, gender duress. Nothing in the Prophets teaching in itself argues in favor of an archaic interpretation of punishment. For one simple good reason : Sufism apart, the Prophet never conceived of self-proclaimed human intermediaries between God, the Prophet himself and the individual believer, a fortiori not intermediaries vested with the mission to substitute themselves to God, for the benefit of the masses. The clerics were conceived as teachers, helping to further individual growth, not substitute for it. This was true the point that the old classic dialectical debating method used in Plato's Academia or among Buddhist monks is still in use today in Islamic Koranic schools albeit in an adapted form. This, in and by itself, is the unmistakable sign of equality, the highest guaranty of individual and collective freedom. Punishment is seen in the light of fairness and of the capacity of the individual to amend for his/her crime. This is so much the case that womengroups ( for example in Pakistan ) argue that this capacity to make ''monetary or material amend'' can paradoxically play in favor of men, in a pseudo-Islamic society over-determined by pre-Islamic family as well as labor structures and traditions! Modernity might be a danger for the most reactionary clergyperson but not, as it seems, for the Prophet himself, and for his egalitarian spirit. Mutilation and lapidating could then only be understood as serious condemnation for a system, which has not yet figured out how to implement the innate egalitarian spirit of Islam. ( Barbaric practices in the Usa are not acceptable excuses, although one would expect societies to advance at their own pace, while always adopting the most advance mediation possible. Similarly, one must distinguish between the criminal code proper and military justice, or more widely speaking the adaptation of the justice system to a state of emergency, that is to say to a state in which a form of collective legitimate self-defense becomes necessary. Yet, the increased rigors implied by such transient emergency regimes should not excuse physical mutilation or torture, as international law demands. If I read it correctly, the Koran teaches peace and only advocates the determined recourse to violence and war for individual and collective self-defense. In the most brutal forms of punishment inherited from traditions, allowance was always made for the transition to symbolic reinterpretation and negotiations between the parties. At the end of the process however both parties had to feel that justice, and not some semblance of justice, had passed : One only needs to peruse the Hammurabi Code to see that this was indeed a very ancient and crucial form of the humanization of justice. You will find the same dialectic between actual sacrifices and symbolic scarifies within every religious system of thought, be it ''primitive'' or ''evolved''. For the truly believing person ( or for a convinced Humanist ) having to usurp the privileges attributed to god, as a Fatherly, Autocratic figure, vis-à-vis other humans beings, is always a sign of failure, a betrayal of collective Human becoming. Persuasion is seen as a truer sign of strength than brute force, unless ones own survival is directly at stake. The casuistry over ( internal and external ) Jihad illustrates this paradox only too well. Again the Islamic Charter of Right, fully compatible with the UN Charter, recognizes this plain and obvious fact. Muslims would do well to reclaim their own formidable contribution to equality and individual freedom, without which no First and Second Renaissance would ever have been possible in Europe.
Islam had also innovated in matter of financial credit. In fact, the Western modern system of banking, as exemplified by the ''lettres de créance'' generalized by Cosmo dei Medici, had its roots in the Templar early form of ''bons du trésor'' and other ''créances'' ( and before that, in Roman military and merchant practices. ) These, in turn, had their roots in the commercial practices emerging during earlier times from the Mediterranean, African and Asian commercial circuits and personal networks. A piece of paper whose face value would be honored on the spot is more practically and safely transported than bulky gold or silver bars or metallic money, or for that matter, precious shells serving as means of exchange value in the Old Dahomey and African kingdoms. In these matters as in others, the Arabs were avid synthesizers learning from all their contacts, be they '' Roman '', Indian, Chinese or African. When one considers the parallel obligation for the community to condemn usury and banking, while at the same time taking care of the weakest members of society ( sakkat ), it is clear that an advanced form of wealth redistribution was the Prophets own socio-economic preference. A debate could be had about the proper role of private property in the Koran. Needless to say, a proper distinction between private possession and private property would quickly impose itself, the latter being understood as a definite capitalist acquisitive juridical form. This is because at their apogee during the Western Midle Ages, Muslin civilization and scholarship obviously knew merchant capital, but this was a merchant capital that was not yet evolved into a capitalist form of money and credit, solely geared toward cold accumulation for accumulation sake.
As it were, the Koran makes it quite clear that private property is legitimate only when it does not contradict the two main principles, already mentioned above. Namely, the obligation to care for society as a whole and the strict condemnation of private banking ( i.e. the autonomy of banking capital from the spheres of real production and consumption, transforming it into speculative capital, contrary to legitimate credit which is necessary to smooth the overall cycles of capital within Enlarged Reproduction. ) In fact, aside for temporal, transient social reasons, the sole legitimacy for private property in the Koran rests on it being seen as a reward from God to deserving persons. As in Thomas Paines Rights of Man, this would appear to rule out the inheritance of wealth, especially extreme wealth that can translate into undeserved political leverage over a society of equal ''believers''. At its best, Muslim credit and banking effectively take the form of Sovereign Funds. This potentially leads to the socialization of wealth simultaneously sheltering the Muslim National Social Formations from speculative finance and ''credit without collateral'', now hopelessly aggravated by Geithner-Bernake's ex nihilo creation of money
( Note added in January 2011 : We all know about the Fed and Treasury anti-crisis policies embodied in the grotesque bailout plans and successive Quantitative Easing. We had QE I after the 2008 subprimes crisis and recently QE II, amounting to US $ 600 billion; soon mutatis mutandis we will have QE III sometimes around May-June 2011. This quantitative easing policy is generally misunderstood and undervalued. In reality, just like Volcker-Reagan's opposite strategy characterized by double-digit interest rate, this is intended to destroy all potential ''economic and military rivals'', a goal clearly described in the Pentagon and Department of State leaked secret documents after the second Gulf War. QE is war by other means. QE is not intended to emulate the hyperinflation policies implemented with the help of the UK and USA Dawes Plan etc in Germany during the 20's and early 30's by Dr. Schacht, in order to destroy the war debt repayment system, as well as the monetary consequences ushered by the Versailles Treaty. Indeed, the Fed does not publish the monetary aggregate M3 any longer : In retrospect, this is the best vindication of my Marxist real quantitative theory of money which demonstrates the mechanism of structural inflation squarely based on the Marxist Labor Law of Value. This theory is presented in my books, particularly in Tous ensemble. The knowledge of structural inflation opens the way for the scientific grasp of all other forms of inflation, and is strictly related to the real and formal monetary masses vaguely approached by the Marginalist-derived monetary aggregate M1. Yet QE tries to minimize the weight of US debt financing, while saving and feeding private US banks. This is a gross manipulation of the lingering status of the dollar as the leading international reserve currency : The Chinese, Japanese, European as well as other countries are now thickly covering themselves in ex nihilo paint by financing the US debt at the most ridiculous real rate; in so doing, they are also accumulating worthless reserves; these dollar-denominated reserves will simply evaporate during the next unavoidable and foreseeable monetary-financial crisis; meanwhile, through a technique known as carry trade, US banks use this cheap domestic financing to invest internationally, in lucrative industries and mainly in CDS slapped over sovereign debts ( Ireland, Greece, Portugal, Spain etc, etc ), with the help of private and badly regulated rating agencies. Present developments in the Magrheb or Bolivia do show that, aside from CDS over sovereign debt, this speculation dramatically affects oil, natural resources and foods, which all have the potential to provoke hunger-protests and latent ''regime change''. This big binge is effectuated with Monkeys Money or, if you will, ''credit without collateral''. Obviously, this big bash can't last.
Muslim citizens have probably already read La guerra de las divisas y los Rothschild summarized by Alfredo Jalife-Rahme ( in http ://www.eleconomista.cubaweb.cu/2010/nro385/guerra-divisa.html ) They should also understand that b» : This remains tragically true today as it was during the Elizabethan Age. Unless Nations-States rapidly take all measures necessary to shelter the financing of their own national debt, preferably through Workers Funds or Sovereign Funds, their industrial and banking systems will rapidly be washed away by the mounting flood of Stateless money coming out of the Federal Reserve System, or more specifically out of its few great, Jewish-controlled, New-York banks, As explained in the International Political Economy section of this site, these few banks now directly control both the Fed and, most unconstitutionally, the US Treasury. Great care must also be taken to control imported inflation, which this flood of money can impose on the US commercial partners. Indeed, this can dramatically affect basic necessities such as food and gasoline. Traditionally, this problem was mitigated by variable capital controls and by the rate of exchange of the currency : In a free floating global monetary regime, this is not the case any longer, if only because of the increased importance of speculative finance, multiplied by speculative interdependency which renders Central Banks helpless ( Speculative finance amounted to 3% of GDP 10 years ago, but reached 9% before the last crisis, and is now necessarily much worse. Real economy is thus sapped at its roots. ) After the 1997 crisis and later, Thailand proved that new forms of capital controls can be efficient. In Tous ensemble I had also spoken about the importance of ''circuit-brakers''. Yet, the main solutions are necessarily structural.
This international, dollar-driven speculative trend might become suicidal for progressive Muslin and for all other countries. At least if they allow their internal price structure to be aligned on speculatively determined world prices. One only needs to look at the present and unjustified but speculative price increases in cereals and other basic food staples, to understand what is at stake. Given the strict relationship between these prices and the political stability of political regimes in particular those designated for bf the final price of these products which is paid by the domestic and foreign consumers. Of course, this is an efficient way to silently recycle petro-dollars; it is more potent than Kissinger's diplomatic but advertised post 1973-war recycling. One will note that the production cost of oil varies between 6 to 12 dollars a barrel ( 25 or so, at most, for the tar sands. ) Obviously, the EU is able to adopt such an over-determined price structure because of its real productivity advantage : The tax fills up the State coffers and allows for billions of tax exemption and hidden subventions to industries, while commercial partners, particularly in the developing countries, are quietly made to finance the West. The US does the same at a lower level but it complements it with a relatively cheaper internal price structure on oil and gas. Moreover, as was aptly demonstrated by the Socialist Jospin government, the extent of this tax can also lead to targeted credits, for instance to needy households, truckers, agricultural farmers and fishermen, thus favorably affecting production cost structures. Obviously, if the domestic industrial and economic productivity is not at the level it should be, this type of EU-alignment on world price through internal taxation should be approached carefully : Oil rich nations do not want to uselessly dissipate their competitive advantage ( oil and food do constitute a big chunk of real production costs, thus allowing for a comparative advantage in the localization of energy-intensive industries, as even Alfred Marshal long before the recent technopoles theorists clearly recognized. ) The mediation will have to come from the credits afforded to households and to industries, which such a taxation structure can permit : Even then, the introduction of such a taxation structure should be carried out and managed slowly, step by step; the so-called Shock Therapies are only good for Chicago Boys or for connected students earning their high degrees discussing the favorability of Coca-Cola rather than Pepsi or vice-versa or inquiring into such mind blowing dilemmas as brand or no-brand and winners and losers, etc.
This being said, Muslim and progressive leaders must avoid like the pest any internal and politically induced inflationary spiral, such as prevailed in Argentine and indeed in whole South America during the early 80's. The scenario in short is as follow : Internal prices are aligned on the world prices or more directly on the US dollar; to preserve political stability, the leaders bow to the nominal salary demands of the middle-classes, public employees in particular; these recurrent salary increases are soon taken back by induced inflation, simply because real productivity does not follow; the inflationary spiral is then initiated, and becomes the typical ''fuite en avant'' of self-destructive and clientelist regime. Meanwhile, the national bourgeoisie uses its legal or covert access to foreign markets to shelter its capital, investing it outside. Quickly, the internal debt, incurred and aggravated in order to finance these quagmirerish political budgetary policies, becomes unsustainable due to the enormous domestic capital outflows and evasion. Typically the sums involved for Argentine, Mexico, Brazil and other countries were greater than the domestic debt itself. IMF conditionality, together with the ferocious ''austerity plans'' imposed by a so-called Washington Consensus, rapidly complete this national strangulation and abolish any pretense to national sovereignty, even to dignified bworth his former shadow before Lula took power … Today, this deleterious trend would be aggravated by the obscene imposition of CDS over the sovereign debt, following in the tracks of the Fed's induced floods of ''credit without collateral''. Both Iran and Bolivia were recently faced with such a nightmarish scenario : They seem to have reacted in time. Remains to be seen whether they really grasp the whole issue. The rest will depend on their ability to use sane economic theories to shelter their internal price structure, together with their national debt, their industry and, of course, their banking sector. At a minimum, banking should be functionally re-segregated as it was before the imposition of the ridiculous so-called ''universal bank'' model ushered by Volcker-Reagan's counter-reform, and later by the Glass-Steagall deregulation; furthermore, sane, non philo-Semite Nietzschean, competition rules must apply : Failed banks must be allowed to fail, and must then be nationalized for a symbolic euro in order to save households and small businesses savings. Given a prudential ratio of 8 to 1, this would indeed cost much less to public coffers than any neoliberal bailout plan of private stateless banks left to operate with the same crazy rules which created the huge budgetary quagmires in the first place. Such nationalized and public banks would cause no monetization effects, simply because their lending would go to productive activities within real economy instead of the existing speculative unproductive spiral ... . Obviously, regional non-free-trade economic zones or even bilateral accords are preferable to an alignment with a dying speculatively-inflated US dollar dictating a speculatively dangerous world price-structure. Un homme averti en vaut deux ... )
Islam had produced a great advance in understanding the general political economy or internal coherence ( asabiyyah ) sustaining societies. Perhaps revisiting Ibn Khaldun's insight with the benefits of modern ethnology on endogamy and exogamy would illuminate this point. At least, if we carefully leave aside stale and not very useful diatribes against certain aspects of Madeleine Tillion's main thesis, which were perhaps too closely informed by strategic and neo-colonial, if unspoken illusions. In short, the production and transmission of wealth through the countryside or the urban clans informed by the Koran and much diluted by modern capitalism - could perhaps more easily be adapted to a socialist federation of communes, placed under a main Head ( or Modern Prince in Gramsci's republican and socialist reformulation of Machiavelli's ethico-political drive, too often traded for the vulgar and deceptive bourgeois rendering of it. ) This could be more beneficial than cold, capitalist collective exploitation for strictly private accumulation. Because this would reconcile the increase of wealth with legitimate redistribution and culturally inherited, but ethically, sane principles ( or Traditions ), it could open the road for a new apogee within Muslim culture. This is because many artificial fetters, now impeding a harmonious and autochthonous modernization, would then be shed away. At the very least, the main methods of judicial religious and civilian interpretation not only malekites - would more easily fit into such a general political economy. As I understand it, the profoundly unifying, inter-regional link in judicial interpretations, within the Muslim world, followed the same logic of flexible unification as that which was imparted by the teaching of the Arabic language drawn from the Koran itself : Today, these interpretations are also bound to take into account the Islamic Declaration Of Rights and its UN counterpart -, as well as other international and regional treaties : One would thus maintain unification while furthering modernization. This seems to be a subterranean operating trend any way. But this is not the place to elaborate further on this crucial point, especially not for a neophyte like me. See also the important work of Pierre-Philippe Rey on neocolonialism and on family structures in pre-capitalist modes of production in Africa. )
We all understand that from a strict application of this thinking could emerge an egalitarian fiscal policy. This alternative could be more developed in reality than the class-biased fiscal policy implemented by the late Western Welfare State at its redistributing peak. Thomas Paine had in truth pioneered this form of fiscal policy a form the United States Left will soon be forced to reclaim as its own if the neoliberal State continues to destroy the very basis of Keynesian fiscal policy ( as opposed to the reactionary cooptation of popular anger and subservient American theatrics recently known as the Tea Party. ) In fact, a strict succession tax aiming at the leveling of the playing field for each generation would represent a better alternative. It would have the potential to further the individual and collective creativeness ( and/or her/his otherworldly worthiness ) with minimal taxation over accumulated wealth during one's lifetime. This would paradoxically constitute the sole thinkable example of fair, unbiased Rawlsian redistributive games ( Did I dare say that? If you know your Rawls you would quickly understand why; in fact, the kind of taxation implied by Thomas Paines system, or by the Koran, would quickly reveal the class biases and ''non-dits'' of that simplistic but much vaunted neo-von Hayekian right-wing ''libertarian'' ideology posing as bal distribution of private property, family connections and, on top of it all, by the monopoly of brute force in the hands of the self-proclaimed ''elites''. Perhaps Rawls and his disciples would gain in glancing not so much at Marx- you can't ask too much but at least at Hegel's master and slave dialectic. ) We could easily acknowledge the legitimate role and scope of ''private property within Islamic societies'' ( or rather, legitimate private possession ) because this is an interpretation which seems to be accepted by the majority of the Islamic population in the different culturally Muslim States. In so doing, we would end up with either a ''reformist revolutionary socialism'' or with a radical revolutionary socialism. But, in either case, it would be one deeply rooted within the Islamic heritage, culture and present political and socio-economic reality. In short, this would herald the authentic rebirth of the original Islamic egalitarian ''spirit'', and the restoration of Islamic civilization at the forefront of non-exclusivist modernity. ( For the theoretical development of the ''reformist revolutionary democratic'' road to socialism, see the second part of my Tous ensemble )
This is particularly the case because of Islam's original ( ontological ) ecumenism. Not only did the Prophet recognize that there can be no constraint in religion. In the same breath, the Prophet placed his own prophetic vision in the continuity of the history of his whole region. The Koran wholeheartedly recognizes the contribution of the precedent religions of the Book. Moreover, the Prophet wisely took the best from the spiritual traditions of his own Peninsula, even when these traditions where rooted in pre-monotheistic ways of life. This was not a diplomatic political stance. In reality, as far as I can tell, it goes at the very heart of the Prophet's teaching, he who was peremptorily told to ''read'' and ''read'' and ''read''. In other words, the Prophets teachings are best understood in a non-dogmatic tradition, which favors all human attempts ( spiritual or cultural ) to break away from a behavior still determined by nature, and to progress toward rules of conduct more befitting to responsible human beings. In his deliberate attempt to reach a principled synthesis, the Prophet's method closely resembles that of a post-John the Baptist Christ : The inspiration seems to be the same, albeit pushed further, in particular as far as Millenarian expectations and frenzies were concerned. This amounts to positing an all-seeing God as the operational didactic modus operandi of a nascent responsible human conscience, responsible in fact for his own actions and, simultaneously, for the well-being of the whole community of human brothers and sisters. This extensive apprehension of the variety of civilizations of the ''book'' can be seen as a forerunner of modern anthropology and modern ethnology. The rapid extension of the early Islamic empire reinforces this comprehension; it largely explained the avid tradition of translations, which rapidly made up for the disastrous ransacking of the library of Alexandria. It was only fitting that modern Western thought, as exemplified by Montesquieu, used Islam as a pretext to accomplish the necessary methodological and ontological ''decentration'' ( See Piaget in his UNESCO Report on sciences and epistemology ) by which the observer can gain a better critical point of view in his/her scientific endeavor.
What, then, of the largely fabricated, yet formidable, problematic arising from the traditional interpretation of ''credulity'' within Islam? Infidels are not a problem for the Prophet as long as they dont act as enemies of Islam. After all, we have seen that they are conceived as belonging to the civilization of the ''book'' generically speaking, the various ''books'' themselves being interpreted according to the ethical principles and fairness of behavior practiced among their own community of believers, that is to say according to their ability to preserve the common peace ( This tolerance, akin to a multiconfessional form of laicity, was more important for the well-being of the State than their authentic spirituality, which would always be seen as lacking the ultimate understating of monotheism as reformulated by the Prophet himself. The Nemesis to this political, cultural and spiritual tolerance was presented in the most caricatural fashion by the ( pre-Frantz Fanon ) fanatic Jew Sabbatean Zevi, with his aspiration to become sultan in lieu of the sultan! The rest, of course, is a matter of political, power structures in a pre-modern regime of interstate balance of power ( expressed in the usual Eurocentric rendering of it, this would refer to the interstate setting prevailing before the Westphalian Treaty of 1648. )
Given its original egalitarianism, nothing in the Koran itself would contradict the UN Charter, least of all its modern pacification of State relationships. To this should be added a principled defense of the currently undervalued role of the UN Socio-Economic Council, which had been planned by the Fathers of the UN Charter to be on the par with, if not above of, the UN Security Council. As I have argued before, the real problem remains the usual confusion between ''incredulity'' and ''atheism''. Aside from important but non-dominant philosophical traditions, atheism was neither widespread in antiquity, nor during the Prophet's time. Above all, it never was a serious danger for the main messages carried by the Koran. Its most likely form of dissemination would have been a Platonic form, escaping from the neo-Platonic ( Plotin ) early Christian recuperation. Socrates, as portrayed by Plato, famously questioned the ethical principles to be derived from a sheepish and literal reading of the mythologies portraying the gods' often unruly behavior ( Hesiod, Homer etc. ) He can easily be seen by the Prophet as a ''reader'' still searching for the truth, but certainly not antithetical to the Truth itself or to its main consequences : Namely, the equality and liberty which ontologically belong to the human species, away from all sorts of racial or religious exclusivism, i.e. the responsibility of individual conscience when it comes to distinguishing between what is ethically Good, or merely materially beneficial, and what is Bad ( in the French language crystal clear semantic triptych : Bien, Bon ou Mal ). Dogmatists of all stripes are always threatened by this ''searching'', ''doubting'' stand, simply because their temporal power would then run the risk to be questioned ( See for instance the young Rosicrucian cum papist Leibniz rushing in a mission to preventively go through Descartes's papers at his death … as a vulgar Masonic-religious robber and censor. Of course, Descartes was the epitome of the modern philosopher of doubt. ) The confrontation between Ibn Rushd and Al-Ghazali had its parallel in the West shortly afterwards with Saint-Bernard and Abelard. Yet, the Western confrontation was a cruder version of the refined arabo-islamic version, simply because it was more closely tied up with military and economic issues. ( Namely, the search for the control of the main commercial roads was masked by the religious-ideological urge to ( re )conquer Jerusalem for the Christians ( ! ), a policy which led to the forgiving of debts to the lower nobility ruined by the rebirth of Western commerce; the precise condition to be met for this debt forgiving ''godsend'' was the acceptance, by the ruined nobles, to act as crusading mercenaries. Today, the US is facilitating access to citizenship through identical private and public mercenary employment. Incidentally, the first loss of this venal Jerusalem by the Western mercenary armies led to the First Western Renaissance : This civilizational awakening was ushered by Joachim of Fiore, who had been aided in his enlightened understanding by his earlier trip to ''Syria''; during this trip, he rediscovered that the authentic Jerusalem was not embodied in material places and Silk Road armed posts, but rested instead within each individual's conscience and ''soul'' ).
Ibn Rushd and al-Ghazali exemplify the issue best : Should the believers abandon her/his individual duty, that is the responsibility carried by her/his human conscience, to dogmatically dictated behavior in an outward demonstration of her/his ''fear'' of God, or should s/he fear god in reality by behaving as a free, inquisitive spirit, fully aware of her/his own limitations, but equally fully willing to assume her/his responsibility in front of oneself, and of the community of other free and equal human beings, that is to say, for short, in front of ''God''? The Koran says it itself in clear terms : ''Read! Read! Read!''. But read with a pure heart, that is to say with a heart that would feel as both an insult and an injury to its inner self to ever question the basic equality and dignity of any other human being. This insult and this injury are what characterize exclusivists and ''incredulous'' people of all stripes, in other words people who negate the egalitarian message of the Prophet and of many Prophets before him. Up until now atheism has been polluted by the misunderstanding of Feuerbach's truly rabbinical offensive against human becoming and, more specifically against the monarchical Prussian-based dialectical logic of the Hegelian Spirit ( and more precisely of Joachim of Fiore's spirit which culturally arrived to Hegel through Luther, and even more directly through Christian Rosecroix, Thomas Müntzer and Giambattista Vico. ) This misunderstanding includes the Young Marx, who eventually shied away from overtly treating him as a new member of his decried collection of ''saints'' in the Holy Family. It is my thesis that Nietzsche's stand concerning the narrative nature of the Idols is squarely based on his own demagogic and truly ''miscreant'' reading of Feuerbach, particularly of this sentence : after Jesus ( thus, to clarify the mystification, if not because of the resurrection, at least because of the message of universal egalitarian justice implied by it ), the individual Christian felt as a god compared to Antic Gods and to their Earthly self-ointed representatives. Note that the author of the Theogony did not ignore what was known during his life time about the Epic of Gilgamesh, although he still knew nothing about modern psychology ( a fortiori about a still to be born Marxist psychoanalysis. ) In reality, confronted with the complexity of the issue, the a-theist stands clearly on the principle : ''Neither god, nor master'', which in modern, non visual terms, is essentially the same message as that of the Prophet : Those who could not arrive at this revelation by themselves were given very few and parsimonious ethical tenets and rituals to orient them; however, this was always done by emphasizing the rule of individual conscience, thus the cardinal principle : No constraint in religion; or by the non-tautological affirmation according to which ''there is no god but god''. The metaphor of the temptation in the desert used by both Buddha, Jesus and the Prophet, among others, is here the key. Paradoxically, on this very issue, the understanding should be complete between true Islamic believers and ''Agnostic'' or ''Atheistic'' persons.
Should we ignore the equation between the message and the messenger, which form a basic tenet of the Koran? This is a fallacious question : It can be resolved simply by asking what, in the Prophet's own eyes, is more important, the message or the messenger? When the Prophet states that there is no constraint in religion, the answer is clear for all to see and comprehend. However, the Prophet and modern psychoanalysis have a clear understanding of the predicament of each individual soul and of each individual society. The Prophet talks about Barghouts and Djinns. Modern psychoanalysis is starting to understand schizophrenia and other para or acute-phrenia ( see the second part of my book Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme, a book which now stands as an act of accusation against all the pseudo-intellectuals and scientists, including neuroscientists, who are happy to steal what they can steal from the top of their arrogant ignorance, even when they are not on the payroll of the Armies and the Intelligences services. But, nonetheless, they rest content with the fact that I am actively and continuously harassed, and deprived of the financial and academic means to further my own pioneer research. )
Any one willing to take into account this modern understanding of Antique knowledge and wisdom, something recognized by every authentic religious or philosophical thinker, will understand the difference between ''incredulity'', a venal, socially and individually disruptive behavior, and ''atheism'' understood as a principled stand which courageously recognizes the facts ( albeit still partially understood today ) as well as the demand they make on his own conscience, in the absence of a living Prophet to determine what is Good and what is not. In fact, the true atheist not to be equated with the mere anticlerical militants, or with spiritualist cynicism of freemasons - refuses to substitute himself, or any other ''priest'', as an intermediary of God or of his Prophet, and recognizes that the Koran does not answer ( at least not in clear and unambiguous terms ) all the trivial or vital quandaries presented by life and history. Other sources were and still need to be called upon. Her/his own responsible conscience is her/his only shield. But obviously it can benefit from the best which history can provide, the Koran included. On the contrary, non-Atheists are quickly driven either to succumb to unaccounted for ''stimuli'' ( the Hashashin sect illustrates this point dramatically for past history. ) In some cases, they are driven to succumb to ''visions'' and ''voices'' and other illusions and frenzies. Or else, they try to solidify the historically understood teaching into what becomes, by definition, ''reductionist'' dogmas and deadly reification of lived reality. Others fall easily prey to the mystic Millenarianism of the worst exclusivist category ( the Second or First Coming of Christ, the return of Zion and many such beliefs ... For pathetic illustrations, see the born-again Evangelists in the USA, and their biblical prophecies, in particular as they concern the ultimate fate awaiting their Zionists temporary allies. This rather neatly explains their frenetic drive to unite all Jews in the « Promised Land », as a prelude to the prophesied final act … naturally, the US Zionists applaud. Did I hear anyone say : « Pitres!»? )
This, in fact, explains the Prophet's most crucial if misunderstood teaching according to which He was the last Prophet, thus putting an end to this often lunatic and dangerous inspiration. The Catholics, themselves destabilized by these movements in the early days of the officialized Church see Ernest Renan soon followed suite : They declared the end of the age of miracles, and carefully pushed the Second Coming of Christ to the ''calendes grecques'' ... All these epigones variously enter into the category of ''pitre'', which I offered in my previously mentioned book. These reductionist dogmas are then bound to lead to sectarian differentiation and often to reification. This sectarian fragmentation is increased by power and succession struggles. This is verified every time the dominant clergy proves unable to adapt to historical changes, and to the new fundamental questions each Epoch reformulates, in an inherent tentative to restore its coherence, as the early historical-sociologist Ibn Khaldun did show. This is a lesson not lost on the second part of my aforementioned book, where the intimate connection between social and individual sanity is strongly underlined in a theoretical and operational fashion. This is done by means of an elucidation of the utmost importance to be granted to the separation of the public and spiritual domains, to gender equality and to strong redistributive policies.
Modern historians following Braudel have become accustomed to underlining the importance of the ''longue durée''. Contrary to Marx ( Ideologie allemande, the Luttes des classes en France, the 18 brumaire and La guerre civile en France in particular see http ://www.marxists.org/francais/marx/works.htm ) they always do their best in failing to see the intimate connection between these longues durées and the modes of production, that is to say the organization of the prevailing forms of structural extraction of surplus value and the epochs, ages and eras that characterize historical becoming.
Taking these elements into consideration would force us to analyze the various forms embodied by the redistribution regime that characterizes the prevailing system of Enlarged Reproduction at any given time, together with the cultural, legal and ideological forms of historical expression which they take. In fact, ''longues durées'' were almost perceived as a negation of Marxism by people having forgotten to have learned their trade from Marx, if only through Marc Bloch; similarly, following Braudel's anachronistic and demagogic ''return'' to a pre-New Deal lost Smithian paradise, they ideologically tried to rehabilitate small capital as the foundation of freedom. Where the mainstream great Austrian economist Schumpeter was deeply pessimistic about the ultimate fate of capitalism because he understood that capitalism was breeding the germs of its own demise, the pitre Braudel typically tried to oppose an ideological and baseless narrative. In so doing Braudel and his followers including I. Wallerstein were shamelessly reaffirming the u-topian ''model'' of perfect competition, which had been the ideological banner of the ''conquering bourgeoisie'' against the old feudal severely partitioned economic order. ( Laisser faire! Laisser passer! ) They thus calculated that this baseless narrative would still be ideologically useful to the dominant bourgeoisies driven by the laws of motion of capital, namely centralization and concentration ... and, consequently, by colonial and imperialist expansion. This is a pre-Friedmanite, pre-neoliberal stand at best, one that was proposed with a straight face many decades after the mystical butchers and shopkeepers at the street corner had been obviously and permanently displaced by the ''big corporations'' and by the ''multinationals'' described by Hobson, Hilferding, Lenin and even Means and Berle ( in the US, as early as the 1920for the latter! ) And of course, long after Sraffa, Chamberlain and Joan Robinson had hit upon the ''economies of scale'' and the oligopolist paradigm, in their partially successful negation ''from within'' of Adam Smith, Marshall, Pigou and the rest, including the ineffable «entrepreneur» rear-guard figure proposed by the tragically-pessimistic Joseph Schumpeter ( The ''fraud Braudel'', he who waited in a library to smell the dominant wind, just like Malraux during the Second World War before Stalingrad, was totally impervious to all of this. To complete the picture, let me just mention Joan Robinsons ''function of production'' critique, Sraffas famous prolegomena and, of course, the subsumation and definitive dépassement of these earlier critiques and of that perversely launched by Böhm-Bawerk against Marx under the concept of ''social surplus value''. This is a most crucial concept, which Marx when he anticipated in part his Book II of Capital dealing with Simple and Enlarged Reproduction and thus redistributive policies, in his Critique of the Gotha program. I successfully re-elucidated this essential contribution in coherence with the Marxist Labor Law of Value, coherently re-integrated within the Equations of Simple and Enlarged Reproduction, as Marx had demanded himself. Note that from this scientific point of view, some longues durées are mere Kondratiev cycles. This is apparent, at least if you re-interpret these pre-conceptual and Baconian-empirical cycles in the light of the Law of Value, as well as in the light of the necessity for all modes of production, but particularly for the capitalist mode of production, to introduce and generalizes from time to time new technological waves, often materialized by intermediary sectors. These have the potential to revivify the productive forces, in a tragic attempt to push back the inherent accumulative limitations of all existing modes of production based on the exploitation of Man by Man, which eventually lead to their historical dépassement ( These limitations are overproduction and underconsumption, both due to the organized squandering of rare resources, a process linked to a social production carried out uniquely for private benefit. )
If due care were taken of the intimate connection between longues durées and modes of production, as well as of the specific forms of redistribution ( including the modern, evolved forms of sakhat ), far from making Islam appear as antithetical to modernity and social and human progress, these longues durées in Islamic history and civilizations would likely become its best hope; at least if this were to take the form of what I called earlier, Islamic socialism. This republican Islamic socialism can take two main forms, either radical and revolutionary, or reformist and revolutionary : In both cases, the transfer of State power, including within State Apparatuses, into new hands, and its transformation into socialist democratic forms, is implied either through revolutions or through elections accompanied by ''constituantes'' people's assemblies. Today, the Western progressive forces tend more naturally towards the second version. They will continue to do so as long as neoliberalism and philo-Semite Nietzscheism will not undercut the basic pillars of electoral and industrial democracy. Of course, after Adam Smith and Proudhon, the modern father of Western ''industrial democracy'' was Friedrich Taylor, long before the likes of Ralf Dahrendorf, Piore, Dunlop, Kerr and the rest. Whereas the father of the ''trained gorilla'' was overtly in favor of Censitarian, classical liberal democracy, things naturally become demagogically murky with the others ( even abstracting from grotesque Max Schachtman ), given the strong pressure exercised on the Western proletariats, social programs and electoral systems by the Communist Bloc achievements ( as even Fred Block recognized ) ... at least up until the Mid 60's. We should emphasize here the paradox of the universal suffrage in the West always playing in favor of minute exclusivist minority : This would be an impossibility were it not subverted from inside by the strict selection process operated at all levels, including within most unions and political parties by the Masonic lodges. This ferocious selection process completes the preliminary academic selection at the finishing post. Mass media, as the alleged 4th power, would not last very long without it, even with the help of the Army and Intelligence services. Indeed, this is the dirty intimate secret of bourgeois democracy, and of the current attempt by the philo-Semite Nietzscheans to strictly control the «flows of communication». This is done with the hope to vengefully impose an abject Jesuit-like, Old-testament informed, obscurantist bhe Arabs and the Muslims, the natural tendency for Islam would seem to unavoidably be the first radical option. The sense of unavoidability will unfortunately, yet necessarily, be made worse because of the development of servile ''Arab Zionism'', marching hand in hand with Judeo-Fascism. Real and symbolic ''Palestine'' remains the big marker.
The present danger lies in the fact that there seems to be no viable alternative to the forcefully yet regressive reaction embodied by Islamic sectarian fundamentalism. The future is usually caricatured by two fallacious alternatives. Either it is presented as a biblically-inspired, second rate, Arab and Islamic genealogical destiny ( a crapulous supremacist narrative against which, emblematically, both Al Ghazali and Ibn Khaldun preferred an early classical conception of evolution from monkeys to human beings. ) Or, it is represented as the regressive isolation necessarily spun by Islamic fundamentalist States, forced to de-link themselves from an inimical world dominated by diametrically antagonist Judeo-Fascism.
And yet, were the alternative of Islamic socialism be presented with due care and respect, but also with the utmost determination to affirm the greatness and inherent equality, which ontologically belongs to the culturally Islamic world, it would gain a wide audience, domestically as well as in the West, and in the so-called Developing World. Judeo-Fascism is the enemy of us all. It is so culturally, economically, and as a matter of human ontology and fundamental rights. The pathological claim to an exclusivist ( divine! ) Singularity cannot pretend to usurp the rights inherent to Universality. Naturally, this Jewish brand of ''divine'' exclusivism is ontologically even worse to the worst Beast emerging form the Hobbesian Leviathan with its war of all against all, which Hobbes himself saw at the ultimate, if primitive prove of human equality. This was demonstrated once and for all in Marx's Jewish question, which forms a crucial part of his essential book The Holy family. The contradiction which proves impossible to overcome for Judeo-Fascism or for right-wing Zionism lies in their theocratic-racist exclusivism. Its fatal weakness ( which, together with Nietzsche, it readily and pitrically confuses for its innate strength ) lies in numbers, for in numbers lies both intelligence, creativity and the unbeatable strength of principled resistance. In fact, a resistance fed by the spirit of equality preached by all true prophets in all existing authentic ''books'', as Ernest Bloch so aptly showed. The egalitarian resistance of the Iraqi or the Lebanese Resistance, as opposed to the largely manipulated pseudo-resistance of a pseudo-blowback like Bin Laden and of many of his American, Pakistani and Saudi controllers and financiers, illustrate the point more clearly than an entire library.
Morocco, dominated as it is by an archaic dictatorial monarchy at the service of its Judeo-Fascist masters ( including the closest Jewish advisors to the King and purported Commander of the Faithful who artificially maintain an illiteracy rate of over 80% ) has now become the ''weakest'' link in the proverbial chain, by virtue of its unprincipled rule of power, inherently hostile to its own population, cultural inheritance and region of origin. But Morocco here is just a phrase for Maghreb and Machrek in general ...
Paul De Marco
Copyright © La Commune, September 28, 2003
( Text re-read with some additions in January 2011 )
1 ) Could you imagine these gals and boys meeting annually to devise over the worlds destiny? This is, in fact, what they were doing publicly! Someone must have said so aloud because the advertised public meetings have now ceased! Typical isnt it? You may well safely read a plagiarized, stale and deformed ''mole'' strategy into it, scoundrelously enlisted at the service of right-wing Zionism.
2 ) See Pour Marx, contre le nihilisme : réponse de la banlieue à un philosophe ''pitre'', 2002, freely available in the Books Section of the site http ://lacommune1871.tripod.com ( now http ://la-commune-paraclet.com )